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A Royal Trilogy: Alix & Minnie by James-Charles Noonan

Meet the author of Alix & Minnie

James Noonan loves to study royal history. Through his close relationships with several members of royal families, he was granted access to their historical archives allowing him to research and chronicle the stories of Alix and Minnie.

The biographical trilogy is available now on Amazon.

A Royal Trilogy: Alix & Minnie by James-Charles Noonan
James-Charles Noonan

End Notes

1

Book One – Royal Sister Preparing For Greatness

    1. RA – Denmark (Christian VIII 1847)
    2. Known as the London Protocol (1852)
    3. Tisdale, E.E.P. The Unpredictable Queen. London: Stanley Paul and Company, Ltd., 1953, pp. 14-16.
    4. RA – Denmark (Fredrik VII January 1848)
    5. Fulford, Roger. Royal Dukes. London: Collins, 1973, p. 244.
    6. RA – Denmark (Fredrik VII March 1848)
    7. Translating to ‘Cheers’ in English
    8. RA/ VIC/Mary Adelaide of Cambridge/ correspondence, 1850
    9. Tisdale, E.E.P. The Unpredictable Queen. London: Stanley Paul and Company, Ltd., 1953, p.12
    10. RA – Denmark (Christian IX)
    11. Tisdale, E.E.P. The Unpredictable Queen. London: Stanley Paul and Company, Ltd., 1953, pp. 15.
    12. Russian State Historical Archives (Marie Feodorovna file: “Remembrances”)
    13. Ibid
    14. Russian State Historical Archives (Marie Feodorovna file: “Remembrances”)
    15. Ibid
    16. Ibid
    17. Russian State Historical Archives (Marie Feodorovna file: “Remembrances”)
    18. RA/ Queen Victoria to Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, 25 March, 1863
    19. Hitchens, Mark. Wives of the Kings of England from Hanover to Windsor. London: Peter Owen Publishers, 2004, p. 82.
    20. Tisdale, E.E.P. Marie Feodorovna, Empress of Russia. New York: The John Day Company, 1957, p.20.
    21. Tisdale, E.E.P. The Unpredictable Queen. London: Stanley Paul and Company, Ltd., 1953, pp. 16.
    22. Großherzogliches Archiv Darmstadt (The Grand Ducal Archives, Hesse-Darmstadt)
    23. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier, 1999, p. 9.
    1. A 5,000 acre flat plain in County Kildare which is now a part of the great Irish Stud network
    2. Tisdall, E.E.P. Unpredictable Queen. London: Stanley Paul and Company, Ltd, 1953, p. 24
    3. Ibid
    4. Ibid
    5. Beéche, Arturo E. & Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and His Descendants. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory Editions, 2014, p.9.
    6. Hibbert, Christopher. Edward VII. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007, p. 46.
    7. Albert was morose most of his life. He always believed that he would die young.
    8. He was the son of Queen Victoria’s half-brother Carl, Prince of Leiningen.
    9. RA/VIC/PA/December 1861
    10. This was not extreme in itself. Women at this time did not attend funerals, not even those of their spouses.
    11. In Great Britain, “palace” is only applied to buildings serving as the official residence of the monarch and senior royal family members. The sole exception to this rule is Blenheim Palace, the triumphal home of the first Duke of Marlborough which was a gift from a grateful nation.
    12. He also attempted to rid the palace of the colonies of rats that lived there but he had little success in this and the rats continued to plaque the Wales family for decades to come.
    13. $8,860,000 in 2021 currency
    14. Kaiserdom zu Speyer (officially the Imperial Cathedral-Basilica of the Assumption of Mary and of St. Stephen Proto-deacon) is a Roman Catholic cathedral begun in A.D. 1030. It was built in the Romanesque style, the most common architectural style at that time. Speyer was intended as the largest church in Christendom. Although many other cathedrals built at a later date are far larger, Speyer Cathedral remains the largest Romanesque cathedral in Europe. It contains the crypts of eight kings and several Holy Roman Emperors. As such, it has been a pilgrimage site for centuries. It was not unusual for two Protestant royal families to choose this church as a meeting place because of the opportunity to visit the crypts of past kings which greatly appealed to Victorian sensibilities.
    15. RA/Charlotte Knollys papers
    16. Ibid
    17. RA/Z/462
    18. Ibid
    19. RA/Z/13/49, Crown Princess Victoria to Queen Victoria, 9/6/1862
    20. A grand duchy ranks third in the classifications of monarchical regimes, following empires and kingdoms. A grand duke is considered fully royal and equal in birth to those born within the two higher classifications – empires and kingdoms. Below a grand duchy in precedence are sovereign duchies, such as Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and then principalities, such as Monaco. After these are the sovereign counties in the Holy Roman Empire.
    21. RA/Z/463
    22. Herzogliches Archiv, Coburg (Ducal Archives, Coburg)
    23. RA/Z/463
    24. RA – Denmark, 1862
    25. Queen Victoria’s Journal, 7 March 1863
    26. Augusta of Cambridge was the granddaughter of King George III. She was also the historian within the British royal family. Although married to a German monarch, in her heart she never ceased to be a British princess. Augusta was Queen Victoria’s first cousin. Her not being invited to this wedding caused serious discord between the two, especially as Augusta maintained a London home and would be present in England at that time.
    1. Queen Victoria’s Journal, 7 March 1863
    2. RA/Z/463
    3. This cap was worn by widows at that time, named for the style hat and veil worn by Mary Queen of Scots. It consisted of a tight cap atop the head with a pointed peak at the center of the forehead and a short rising crown from which was attached a long black gauze veil. Victoria wore this headdress for the remainder of her life. Sometimes, especially on festive occasions, she substituted white for the traditional black. When Victoria married Prince Albert, she gave him a diamond star of the Order of the Garter. She wore the star which had once belonged to her uncle, George IV. It was the largest and rarest star in the royal collection.
    4. Honiton lace is a bobbin form of lace manufacture from Devon. It is typically worked in floral emblems. Alexandra’s determination to wear an English-made wedding dress began the custom of royal brides having their wedding dress made in their own nation so as to boost international interest in their country’s craftsmanship.
    5. RA/Charlotte Knollys papers
    6. RA/Add/U/32
    7. RA -Denmark, May 1863
    8. Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia
    9. It was Feodora’s son, Christian August, who attempted to win the dual duchies of Schleswig-Holstein from the Glucksburgs. His second son, another Christian of Augustenburg, would go on to marry Princess Helena, Queen Victoria’s third daughter (and fifth child) further complicating family relations, especially with the Prince and Princess of Wales.
    10. RA/Y/111/24
    11. State Archives, Belgium, Leopold I, Queen Victoria Correspondence, February 1864
    12. For his efforts, Dr. Brown would soon be knighted by the queen
    13. They purchased 2 yards of course flannel, 6 yards of super fine flannel, 1 basket filled with cotton wadding (RA/Z/447/90)
    14. Queen Victoria’s Journal, 9 January 1864
    15. At the receipt of the news, despite the late hour, Victoria ordered her household to pack and early the next morning she returned to Windsor, hurrying later that afternoon over to Frogmore to see both the new baby and Alexandra.
    16. These glowing words were highly unusual for the queen as she typically referred to newborns, and young children, including her own, as ‘ugly little creatures’ or as ‘deformed looking beings.’
    17. RA/VIC/Schleswig-Holstein 30 October 1864
    18. RA/Charlotte Knollys papers
    19. State Archives, Belgium, Leopold I, Queen Victoria Correspondence, March 1864
    20. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file)
    1. Known in Greece as: Othon I.
    2. RA-Denmark/Christian IX file/Appendix A
    3. Ibid
    4. RA/T/4/78
    5. Frederick VII issued a decree ordering that Willy, once he became king of the Hellenes, would continue to remain a prince of Denmark. This decree also mandated that he did not have to abdicate his position in the line of succession to the Danish throne once he became the Greek king. As such all of the descendants of George were styled prince or princess of Greece and Denmark. In 1953, Danish law was altered restricting the line of succession, but the Greek royal line continued to make use of the style ‘of Greece and Denmark’ out of courtesy after that date.
    6. RA-Denmark/Christian IX file/Appendix A
    7. RA–Denmark/Prince Wilhelm/King George of the Hellenes file
    8. Ibid
    9. RA- Denmark/Fredrik VII file
    10. RA–Denmark/Prince Wilhelm/King George of the Hellenes file
    11. Ibid
    12. RA- Denmark/Fredrik VII file
    13. RA–Denmark/Prince Wilhelm/King George of the Hellenes file
    14. RA–Denmark/Prince Wilhelm/King George of the Hellenes file
    15. RA –Denmark/Christian IX/Ascension/November 1863
    16. The title “Chancellor” was not formally assumed by Bismarck until the unification of Germany but this is the title most closely associated with his political tenure. At this time he was correctly entitled “Minister-President” of the Kingdom of Prussia.
    17. RA/ Letters of Queen Victoria/ II/ i/ 234)
    18. That is – the Danish territory before the losses in the Napoleonic Wars.
    1. He was born in Tsarskoye Selo on 20 September 1843.
    2. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file)
    3. Ibid
    4. Ibid
    5. The Winter Palace in its present beautiful green and white color scheme was, under the Romanovs, a natural brown stone building. The colorful painted palace that we know today was actually a gift to the nation by the Soviet regime some years after the Russian Revolution.
    6. The English Embankment, then as now, was the most fashionable street in Saint Petersburg. It was lined with the palaces of the Imperial family (today housing corporate and government offices). In the Romanov era it was known by the French title – Promenade des Anglais.
    7. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna file, 1907)
    8. The House of Worth was founded in 1853 at 7 rue de la Paix in Paris by Englishman Charles Frederick Worth. It became the most important couturier house in Europe remaining in business until 1956.
    9. RA – Denmark (Queen Louise, March 1865)
    1. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Alexander Alexandrovitch file, April 1865)
    2. 24 April 1865. A memorial Russian Orthodox Chapel now stands on the site of the Villa Bermont.
    3. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Alexander II file, April 1865)
    4. Anderson, Hans Christian. Notes of My Life.
    5. Russians were baptized with the names of saints already on the approved list of the Orthodox Church. No other name was permitted them. When a foreign-born wife entered Russia, and this happened only within the imperial family and the highest levels of the Imperial Household as no other Russian was able to interact with foreigners, they had to convert to the Russian Orthodox faith (only a few later exceptions to this rule were permitted by the tsar) and so each had to go through the conversion ceremony at which time a new name from the Orthodox calendar of saints was given to them.

      In Minnie’s case, the name Marie was selected as it was one of the names that she was actually given at her baptism in Copenhagen (Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar). This was not traumatic for Minnie as all those close to her before and after her marriage would still refer to her intimately as Minnie. And so Minnie she would always be. Officially, however, she had to adopt a new name to accompany her new formal title and rank.

      In Russia the second name of each person is known as a patronym. This name identifies a person’s lineage through their father and so if the father’s name was Peter, his sons would bear the second, or patronymic, name Petrovitch, meaning ‘son of Peter’. Likewise, the daughters of a man named Peter would all bear the patronymic name of Petrovna, meaning ‘daughter of Peter’. Very few Russians until the early twentieth century bore a surname. The imperial family, however, did so as each member belonged to the house and family of Romanov.

      Russian grand dukes and grand duchesses likewise included the patronymic name along with their title. Using Sasha as an example, his full name was Alexander Alexandrovitch Romanov being the son of Alexander II. When Minnie entered the Orthodox faith, at her conversion she became the True-Believing Grand Duchess Marie Feodorovna. Marie was selected from her baptismal name, but her patronymic name was altogether another matter.

      Foreign-born imperial brides had the choice of a patronymic name. If their father’s name appeared on the approved list of Orthodox saints, than she would be permitted to use it, in a Russianized form. King Christian, Minnie’s father, had a name that did not appear on that list as in Orthodoxy the name ‘Christian’ was the title of a believer not a person’s baptismal name. Minnie therefore had to select a new one. Most imperial brides in this same circumstance chose the patronymic: Feodorovna.

      The Romanov family patroness was Our Lady of Saint Theodore, an icon of the Blessed Virgin known commonly amongst Russians as the Black Madonna. It is said to be a copy of an icon painted personally by Saint Luke in the early days of the church. It was eventually named the Black Madonna of St. Theodore but no one seems to know why this Russian saint was entrusted with the great icon that came to be the patroness of the imperial family. It became known in Russian as the Feodorovskaya Icon. Feodor is the Russian translation of Theodore. Dagmar, and many Russian imperial brides before and after her, would elect the patronymic name of Feodorovna, a translation meaning ‘daughter of St. Theodore’ but more accurately the choice was to honor the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Romanov family patroness.

    6. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file)
    7. RA –Denmark/Frederik VII file
    8. She was the daughter of Tsar Ivan V and was a niece of Peter the Great. She ruled Russia as empress from 1730-1740.
    9. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Alexander III file)
    10. The Russian Court under Alexander II was opulent but as he and his empress aged it became on the surface rather unexciting for the younger set. Behind the scenes, however, the younger generation was anything but staid. In fact, they were known for their scandals, illicit liaisons, raucous behavior, lavish spending, and opulent entertaining.
    1. This would remain the case for the remainder of her life in Russia. It was not until she was exiled after the revolution that she and Alix jointly purchased Hvidore, their own private residence, a large seaside villa north of Copenhagen. It would be here at Hvidore that Minnie would die in 1928.
    2. Although not a palace in size, the ‘Cottage Palace’ nevertheless did not lack any of Russia’s imperial comforts. The house contained many rare objects d’art which passed to Minnie when she was given personal ownership of the house including a 5,200 piece dinner service commissioned by Alexander I from the world-famous Imperial Porcelain Factory.
    3. Italian architect, Carlo Rossi (1775-1849), was responsible for the changes. It is believed that he was the illegitimate son of Tsar Paul I and Guertroude Rossi-Le Picq, a famous ballerina of that time from Naples. Rossi made his career in Russia and is responsible for most of the great neo-classical buildings and public spaces of the imperial capital. No less than twelve of Saint Petersburg’s most beautiful boulevards were designed by Rossi as were twelve of its public squares and parks. He is best remembered, however, as the designer and builder of the resplendent Palace Square. Palace Square fronts the Winter Palace, built by Rastrelli, to the north and was the site of the most historic events of tsarist Russia. On the southern side is Rossi’s Palace of the General Staff, the Imperial Army’s headquarters, a magnificent example of late neo-classical architecture. In able to make room for the new headquarters an entire neighborhood of row homes had to be demolished and the people resettled elsewhere. Rossi used yellow stucco and white stone for the exterior, the center of which curves inward with two parallel wings on either side (one of which today is part of the Hermitage Museum, used for special exhibits and overflow). Rossi erected a 600 ton column commemorating the victory of Alexander I over Napoleon. It stands in the center of the square, is made of red granite, and is topped by a statue of a bronze angel. The column stands 154 ft. and is the tallest free-standing monument in the world. Rossi and Alexander I were kindred spirits, if not actually half-brothers as such claims cannot now be proven; both men shared a belief that impressive architecture equated regal power.
    4. Originally the palace included a large park to the west but this was removed in 1816 to create the Ostrovsky Square. To the east along the canal two neo-classical pavilions were also erected that limited the garden space of the palace. The first of these was used as the imperial storerooms, a transit site for new goods destined to all the imperial residences in Saint Petersburg. The second pavilion housed the imperial laundry where all the palaces sent their items to be laundered, state and personal property alike. Even when in residence at Tsarskoye Selo, Gatchina, Pavlovsk, or Peterhof, servants delivered goods to the imperial laundry to be washed, starched, folded and returned by the end of the same business day.
    5. After the Russian Revolution the Anitchkov Palace was designated as the City Museum of Leningrad (Leningrad being the Russian name for Saint Petersburg)
    6. Pobedonostsev by name, he had been a tutor to all the tsar’s children in their youth but now returned to Sasha and Minnie at Tsar Alexander II’s insistence.
    7. The worst of these policies was the official sanction of aggressive anti-Semitic policies in the Russian Empire. The term ‘pogrom’ existed in Russia as early as 1748 and there were many waves of anti-Semitic purges in Imperial Russia from this date forward, but it was after the murder of Alexander II that the Jews in general were to bear much of the blame for the terror that had overtaken Russia as many members of the Nihilist movement responsible for the tsar’s assassination and other terrorist acts were secularized Jews. As a consequence, entire populations of peaceful, devout Jews were terrorized, tortured, murdered or exiled. Young Jewish girls would be excluded from these policies if they agreed to officially register and act as prostitutes.

      In the early days of Sasha’s reign, as a direct result of official Russia’s blaming the Jews in general for the tsar’s murder, the term ‘pogrom’ took on a new even more vile meaning. Between the years 1881-1884, large scale, savage riots engineered by the imperial government in Poland, Ukraine and Belarus aimed at the entire population of the Jews in the major cities of these states, took place. More than 200 such riots were fostered with many hundreds of Jews murdered and maimed, their businesses burned out, and families dispersed. Seventeen Russian Jewish women died while being raped multiple times by the rampaging crowds in one such riot in 1881. All of these disturbances always seemed to have a sound reason for the anger of the population but the Jews were always the scapegoats and the central government the hidden cause behind the riots. All of these policies grew out of the hatred within Pobedonostsev and others like him at the highest levels of the imperial government.

    8. Julia P. Gerlardi. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 53.
    9. Robert F. Byrnes. Pobedonostsev: His Life and Thought. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1968, p. 75.
    10. The Russian Imperial Court and both the Imperial Household and the Army, as well, were designed by Peter the Great along Prussian models and many offices in the administration of each institution were designated by German names. Many East Germans, and German noble families from the Baltic nations within the empire, served in the highest ranks of each body. Because of the hatred instilled in him for Germans (as they were non-Orthodox heathens in Pobedonostsev’s mindset) all things German had to be purged from Russian institutions once he became tsar.
    11. The tutor would remain not only at Alexander III’s side until his death but he would remain as a bad influence upon Sasha’s son, Nicholas II, when he became tsar, as well.
    12. Her spirits were raised in time, (but nothing could change Marie of Edinburgh’s dictatorial personality), when Alfred inherited the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1893. As the wife of a German sovereign duke, Marie was thereafter the first lady of the land and although quiet and unsophisticated compared to Russia and Great Britain, Marie reveled in life in Coburg. The Empress Frederick (Queen Victoria’s oldest daughter) would say of her sister-in-law after the move to Coburg that Marie loves nothing more than being number one in Coburg.
    13. The Edinburgh children included: Marie, known as Missy in the family, who later became the infamous Queen Marie of Rumania; Alfred junior who died of a syphilis-fed suicide attempt at age twenty-four; Victoria Melita who married firstly her cousin Ernst Ludwig of Hesse, but this marriage ended in scandalous divorce when Victoria Melita returned home to find her husband in bed with one of his male servants, and then secondly she married another cousin, Grand Duke Kyril Vladimirovich; Alexandra was next born and she married Ernst of Hohenlohe-Langenburg which was considered in the family to be a low marriage despite the groom being the grand-nephew of Queen Victoria; and finally Princess Beatrice who married Alfonso de Orleans y Borbón, Infante of Spain, and duke o Galleria, a first cousin of Alfonso XIII of Spain.
    14. RA/Somerset, 31 August 1865
    15. The queen’s cousin, the Duke of Cambridge, grandson of King George III, also openly opposed the marriage and as he held high rank and enjoyed sincere respect within the Army and also in British society, his opinions carried much weight.
    16. RA/Y/114/31
    17. RA/Somerset/ December 1865
    18. The marriage did come off as the queen wished. It actually became one of the happier of Victoria’s children’s marriages. Christian was elevated from Serene to Royal Highness, named a Knight of the Garter and an Aide de Camp to the Queen, and (in time) a General of the British Army and the Ranger of Windsor Great Park which carried with it the use as a home of Cumberland Lodge, a wedding gift from Queen Victoria. He lived until 1917 while Helena died in 1923.
    1. John van der Kiste. Edward VII’s Children. Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p. 17.
    2. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 84.
    3. Both Bertie and Alix maintained sizable, impressive and modern kennels at Sandringham. The Princess of Wales favored two breeds in particular—the Pekinese and the Russian Wolfhound. Her Pekinese dogs traveled with her from home to home, several were buried in the garden of Marlborough House and their markers remain there to this day. She typically had one or two on her lap or beside her every day and many portraits of Alexandra include these dogs comfortably settled on her lap. It was from these images of their beloved Princess of Wales with her dogs that the common term, lap dog, came into the common vernacular.

      The Russian Wolfhounds, known today properly as the Borzoi, were gifts to Alexandra from her sister, Marie Feodorovna (Minnie), once she had married the tsarevitch and settled in Russia. These impressive Russian hounds were kept exclusively at Sandringham where they were carefully bred by kennel master C. Brundson who remained in service there for fifteen years. Because of Alix’s efforts to expand the breed in England and the West, the Borzoi survived the effects of the Russian Revolution and the Cold War that followed. Alix was known to spend hours with her dogs in their state-of-the-art kennel at Sandringham and in time other breeds were added to her collection including Basset Hounds, Dachshunds, Collies, Samoyeds, Fox Terriers, Pugs, Japanese Spaniels, and towards the end of her life, the Clumber which had begun to move towards extinction but because of her interest in the breed it soon began to thrive once again.

      Bertie and Alix’s design for the kennels at Sandringham mimicked suites in the finest hotels. According to a chronicler of that time who wrote: “Each kennel has an inner compartment as a bedroom, fitted with an iron bedstead and straw mattress. They are well ventilated, with good sanitary arrangements, and are whitewashed once a year. Leading from the bedroom is an open ‘sitting-room,’ supplied with straw and a constant supply of fresh water. Iron gates enclose each kennel from the central yard. Good grass runs are adjacent to the kennels.” (Source: mimimatthews.com/2016/04/29/the-dogs-of-alexandra-of-denmark-a-tour-of-the-kennels-at-sandringham/)

    4. RA/ADD/C/7/5 July 1867
    5. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 86
    6. Wiesbaden is a medieval town near Frankfurt, then inside the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt (but previously a part of the Duchy of Nassau from which stemmed the current Grand Ducal family of Luxembourg); it is near to Rumpenheim. The name translates to ‘meadow baths’ as 26 hot spring mineral baths flowed at spas there for hundreds of years. These waters were believed to have miraculous healing powers.
    7. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 86
    8. An intense hatred that would be passed on to their children and grandchildren and which came to create in Europe a strong anti-German feeling that would lead to government policies effecting European nations up to the First World War.
    9. Queen Louise and her family began packing the moment the Prussian king’s telegram announcing his eminent arrival had arrived at Rumppenheim. With her were several Danish relations, her brother the King of Greece and his wife, and members of the Hessian family.
    10. Egged on by Vicky in Berlin, Queen Victoria sent orders by telegram that the couple was to receive the king in the most gracious of style possible and that she would not accept anything less of them both.
    11. RA/Add/VIC/C/7, 11 October 1867
    12. Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury as follows: 1852, 1858–1859 and 1866–1868.
    13. RA/J/65/6
    14. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p.92
    15. RA/D/23/46
    16. It must be noted that Princess Alexandra was known to seldom use punctuation and her written sentences typically ran together. For the modern reader this would be difficult to follow, and so punctuation has been added to this written source so as to enhance the efficacy of the quotation.
    17. RA/D/23/65
    18. Queen Victoria’s correspondence to the Crown Princess of Prussia, “Your Dear Letter,” pp. 200 – 201
    19. In 2021 this sum equates to $3,850,000 for the building of the new house alone.
    20. This is the equivalent in 2021 to $1,106,000 above and beyond his very generous income from the Duchy of Cornwall, the historic source of funding for all princes of Wales.
    21. Humbert (1821-1877) was a royal architect responsible for the design and building of Sandringham, the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore, the Duchess of Kent’s mausoleum-monument at Frogmore, and the parish church for Osborne House on the Isle of Wight—Queen Victoria’s own Saint Mildred Parish at Whippingham.
    22. It was generally whispered behind the Prince of Wales’ back at that time that when it came to the living conditions of the farmers on the estate, he actually cared little for both their comfort or health concerns.
    23. In England, the term “hunting” refers to what the rest of the world calls either “riding to hounds” or “foxhunting” while “shooting” in England mainly refers to gunning down various species of birds, rabbits, or hares, and which to the rest of the world is known more simply as “hunting”.
    24. The 8 January 1885 dinner party honoring the coming of age of their oldest son, Prince Eddy, the menu actually included sixteen courses, each course presented to every guest by a footman so that each guest was expected to partake in each of the courses offered at dinner: oysters, turtle soup, flamed at the table, and served with quenelles shaped into life-size turtle eggs, puréed chicken soup garnished with shredded chicken cooked in court-bouillon and diced royale (a savory custard made from egg, chervil and chicken consommé), baked turbot dressed in a lobster sauce, salmon fillets with tartare sauce, grilled mutton cutlets with puréed chestnuts, breast of partridge dressed in a supréme sauce made from reduced stock and cream, truffled turkey made from roasting the bird with slices of truffles inserted between the breast and skin, saddle of venison (specifically a stag when the term ‘cimier’ is used), roast sirloin of beef, roast pheasant, roast wild-ducks, creamed chicory, baba-o-rum steeped in an orange and cognac syrup, champagne jelly and fruits and ice cream: (From the collections of: www.royal-menu.com)
    25. Although she adopted many English ways and customs, Alix preferred to maintain as many Danish customs as possible, including a Danish breakfast consisting of breads with cream cheese spread on them, currant jams, pâté and fish, sausages, wienerbrød (i.e. Danish pastries), gammel dansk (an herbal concoction that ferments into a liquor), apple juice and strong coffee.
    26. Sandringham Time was also employed at Balmoral and Windsor once Bertie succeeded his mother as King Edward VII, but not at Buckingham Palace. Despite stories to the contrary, after his grandson, Edward VIII abdicated the throne Sandringham Time was not reintroduced by his successors—George VI and Elizabeth II. The real purpose for Sandringham Time was to take advantage of extended daylight during shooting outings.
    27. Baptized Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary (1868-1935), (Victoria for the queen, Alexandra for her mother Alix, Olga in honor of her aunt the queen of Greece, and Mary in honor of Princess Mary, granddaughter of George III, first cousin of Queen Victoria and good friend to Bertie and Alix. Known affectionately as Fat Mary because of her huge size she would give birth to a daughter in time named Princess Mary of Teck; this girl would become engaged to Prince Eddy who died before they could marry. She then became engaged to his younger brother George and together they would reign in England as George V and Queen Mary).

      This daughter of Bertie and Alix, Princess Victoria, would remain a spinster, the companion of Alexandra in her old age. She was known by future members of the royal family as the ‘Snipe’ as she grew into a gossip and meddlesome aunt and as a consequence was not much appreciated by younger royal family members.

    28. RA/ADD/1868
    29. In adulthood Maud would marry her cousin Prince Carl of Denmark who in 1905 would be elected the first modern King of Norway as Haakon VII with Maud at his side as his queen.
    30. Sandringham House was built in a mix of architectural styles, part Elizabethan, part Queen Anne, and part mid-Victorian, and was worked in red brick with limestone facings and decorations. It was well ahead of its time as it had hot and cold running water in all interior bathrooms, flushing commodes which were newly invented, and a primitive form of modern shower, and gas lighting throughout, as well. The house was also well-heated so as to assist against the bitter Norfolk cold and chronic dampness, thus helping Alix with the symptoms of her advanced rheumatism.
    31. Prince Alexander John is the only descendent of Queen Victoria buried at the Sandringham Estate. He was given the name of John at Queen Victoria’s request but his first name was given him in honor of his uncle Alexander III of Russia.
    32. John van der Kiste, Edward VII’s Children, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989, p. 20
    33. Stanley Weintraub, Victoria: Biography of The Queen, Unwin: Hyman, pp. 360 – 361
    1. Gelardi, Julia. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 51
    2. Her first fiancé was a prince of the princely house of Swartzenburg.
    3. Marie of Mecklenburg took the name Marie Pavlovna at the time of her marriage as she descended from Tsar Paul I through her mother and wanted to accentuate her lineage and her impressive Romanov blood. Miechen, as the family knew her, insisted that she would not convert to Orthodoxy and after several years of negotiating, Tsar Alexander II finally relented permitting the marriage without a customary conversion by the bride. Technically according to House Law, a child of a non-believer could never become tsar but this did not matter to the Vladimirs as Sasha and Minnie were certain to have many children. It was only closer to the Revolution, her children grown and married, and the throne now in reach of her eldest son Kyril, that Marie Pavlovna finally made the full conversion to Orthodoxy.
    4. The Empress Marie Alexandrovna was never liked in Russia anyway. Her continued long absences, especially to her brother’s home in Hesse-Darmstadt, caused suspicion. When she became ill there was little sympathy for her among the Court and nobility and except for her children, no one in Russia would mourn her at her death in 1880.
    5. Marie Pavlovna was her formal name. Within the Romanov family and those closely connected to it, she was always known as Miechen.
    6. Miechen corresponded regularly to Bismarck through his wife. As the Russian secret police would have intercepted her frequent letters to Berlin, some letters which would have been considered treason because of secrets transmitted in them, Miechen sent and received her correspondence with the Bismarcks through the German ambassador in Saint Petersburg. Historians do not claim that her intent was to harm Russia. They maintain that her intent was to foster friendship between the two nations, but from the beginning Sasha considered it otherwise.
    7. The palace built by Grand Duke Vladimir for his wife Miechen was the last palace built under imperial rule in Russia. It was simply referred to as the Vladimir Palace. It was built between the years 1867 and 1872 in the style of a Florentine palazzo, fronting the Neva on the Palace Embankment. Its interior totaled three hundred and sixty rooms, many decorated in periods ranging from the early Renaissance to Second Empire.
    8. The complete list of children of Tsar Alexander II and Marie Alexandrovna is: Alexandra Alexandrovna (1842-1849); Nicholas Alexandrovitch (1843-1865); Alexander III (1845-1894); Vladimir Alexandrovitch (1847-1909); Alexis Alexandrovitch (1850-1908); Marie Alexandrovna, Duchess of Edinburgh (1853-1920); Serge Alexandrovitch (1857-1905); and Paul Alexandrovitch (1860-1919).
    9. Gelardi, Julia. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 51
    10. Ibid
    11. Ibid
    12. In the negotiations leading to Minnie’s marriage to Sasha, the Danish government initially committed to a dowry in the sum of 60,000 rigsdalers but this sum went unpaid as the Danish treasury could not afford this commitment.
    13. The marriage contract’s clauses that pertained to the income guaranteed to Minnie at marriage was referred to in royal circles as the morgangave.
    14. These figures translate into 2021 U.S. Dollars as follows: 1,000 rubles paid out at 1865 value would equate to $32,998. Therefore the value of Marie Feodorovna’s marriage contract amounts in 2021 in U.S. Dollars would be: 50,000 rubles = $1,849,900 40,000 rubles = $ 975,920 100,000 rubles = $2,499,800 85,000 rubles = $2,215,000 42,000 rubles = $1,107,916 Sources: Baedeker’s Russia; http://www.in2013dollars.com; http://www.usinflationcalculator.com
    15. Coryne Hall. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 40
    16. Ibid. p. 41
    17. Ibid. p. 45
    18. Early steam heat was added to the palaces in Russia after 1845 by order of Nicholas I. It supplemented the already existing porcelain stove heating systems long common in Russia. The overall effect, with the windows sealed, was extreme dry heat that permeated the palaces.
    19. Despite the largesse granted her at the time of her marriage, every purchase made by Minnie was paid for out of Sasha’s funds or, once he became tsar, out of the Crown Appanages funds. None of her own funds were depleted for any payment of her extravagant purchases after her marriage.
    20. Greg King, The Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006.p. 242
    21. Charles Frederick Worth (13 October 1825 – 10 March 1895). Worth is considered the father of French couture even though he was born an Englishman. His clientele included the Empress Eugenie, Empress Elizabeth, the Princess of Wales, Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, the Princess Metternich, and most female members of the Russian imperial family. Minnie and Miechen were his two most lavish clients, each buying enough clothes each season for him to eschew all other clients if he so wished.
    22. Greg King, The Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006, p. 242
    23. The sarafan is technically the long tubular multicolored dress found in Russia and parts of Finland. It is not common to other Slavic peoples. The more elaborate Russian court costume developed from this garb and therefore is also sometimes referred to as the sarafan although the court dress is far more elaborate and distinct.
    24. Tsar Nicholas I issued an edict in 1830 that established formal regulations for the style and colors of the court costume thereafter to be worn by the empresses, grand duchesses, princesses, and ladies attending at Court. This decree mandated the materials to be used for the costumes of each class within the Imperial Court, the colors to be assigned to each lady, the amount and style of decoration for each class, and the length of the train that would trail behind each lady, from the empress down to the humblest maids of honor. With only minor changes to the rulebook, the decree of 1830 remained in force until the demise of the empire in 1917.
    25. Greg King, The Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006, p. 245
    26. A.A. Ignatiev, A Subaltern in Old Russia, translated by Ivor Montagu. London: Hutchinson, 1944, p. 97
    27. Elizabeth Feodorovna was the sister of the last empress, Alexandra Feodorovna. Both women were granddaughters of Queen Victoria, born princesses of Hesse Darmstadt. Elizabeth came to Russia when she married Sasha’s younger brother Serge. Queen Olga of Greece was born Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna and returned to Russia each year for long periods. Although technically a foreign queen, Olga retained her identity as a Romanov grand duchess and thus continued to wear the costume at the Imperial Court which had been assigned to her before her marriage to King George I of Greece (Alix and Minnie’s brother Willy).
    28. Each coronation mantle was only worn at one coronation after which they were presented in the State Armory Museum in the Kremlin for public viewing. When Sasha died and was succeeded by his son Nicholas II Madame Olga was called upon to not only make all of the new coronation livery dress and the court costumes for all the grand duchesses but she was also called upon to create three new imperial mantles—one for the new tsar, one for his mother Marie Feodorovna, who as dowager empress outranked the new empress, and a third for Alexandra Feodorovna who was crowned at her husband’ side.
    29. Svetlana A. Amelkhina and Alexey K. Levykin. Magnificence of the Tsars: From the Collection of the Moscow Kremlin Museums, London: V&A Publishing – The Victoria and Albert Museum, 2008, p. 41.
    30. Ermine is properly known as stoat, a member of the weasel family common to Eurasia. In Siberia in the winter the stoat’s coat turns pure white, only the tip of its tail remains black. In this season the animal is known as the ‘ermine’ and it is this prized white fur that is used to dress the mantles of kings, emperors, popes and cardinals.
    31. This secondhand court costume for the lowest level of court appointees would cost today approximately $16,750. One can therefore imagine the cost for the newly created costume for the empress and the grand duchesses. At least one new costume was commissioned each year by each Romanov lady.
    32. Today the tiare a la russe is properly referred to as the Russian fringe tiara and nearly all Royal families from Sweden and England to Monaco and Greece and Denmark possess at least one.
    33. Carl Edvard Bolin was the owner of the House of Bolin, the Court Jewelers of Imperial Russia. At the peak of Bolin’s work in Russia they supplied more to the Imperial Court than all other jewelers in Europe put together.
    34. This tiara is technically referred to as a diadem. In the nineteenth century, jewelers began to differentiate between the two terms—tiara and diadem—with diadem becoming the preferred title of a jeweled head ornament that entirely encircled the head rather than one that sat atop the head at the front but only continued down passed the ears of the lady wearing it.
    35. At the time of the Russian Revolution Marie Feodorovna left behind at the Anitchkov thirty-one tiaras and countless other jewels. Some of these belonged to the state but were in her possession. She was simply permitted to use them as she wished but the lion’s share of the jewels left at the Anitchkov were a part of her personal collection. As a tiara was required to be worn nearly every night in those days, even when only dinning with intimate family members, Minnie made full use of all of the items in her valuable collection. As she and the other Romanovs fully expected to return to power in the months following the unrest that unseated them, she left behind the major share of her jewelry collection when she fled the Revolution. (Source: Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Marie Feodorovna file).
    36. Stephano Papi, Jewels of the Romanovs: Family and Court, New York: Thames and Hudson, 2010, pp.18-20 and 256.
    37. The Bolsheviks sold off many of the stolen Romanov jewels under the order of Joseph Stalin in the early 1930s, especially those from their personal collections. The Soviets needed cold cash to prop up their regime and the confiscated gems quickly went onto the auctioneer’s block, but only qualified foreigners were permitted to purchase them. The tiaras that had been part of the Imperial Treasury were reserved and were eventually sent to the Russian State Armoury in the Kremlin where many are now on display in an exhibit known as the Romanov Diamond Fund. Minnie’s favorite tiara with dangling pearls was one of the gems sold. It is believed today to be in the private collection of Imelda Marcos but no one has been able to verify this claim. Many other Romanov gems made their way into the collection of Marjorie Merriweather Post at whose home, Hillwood, in Washington, DC they may now be seen.
    38. Known to this day as the “Vladimir Tiara,” it is the diadem worn by Queen Elizabeth II and one of her most recognizable tiaras. It was smuggled out of Russia during the most dangerous days of the revolution by Miechen’s faithful friend, Albert (Bertie) Stopford (1860-1939) who carried it in a doctor’s valise. He also rescued many of her other jewels as well. When she died her surviving collection was divided between her sons and daughter Elena. Elena was by then Princess Nicholas of Greece and when the Greek family had to go into exile she sold some of her mother’s gems so that her family could live comfortably abroad. The tiara suffered during the long escape from Russia. Four pearls went missing and numerous diamonds had come loose. Garrard and Co. was asked to repair it when Queen Mary purchased it in 1924 at which time it passed into the British royal family. When Queen Mary died it passed to her granddaughter the current queen who wears it often, alternating the original pearls with the Cambridge emeralds suspended within its circlets. In 1988 the entire Vladimir Tiara was remade by Garrard at the request of Elizabeth II but the recreation remained faithful to the original in every way.
    39. Alix’s Russian fringe tiara was made by Garrard & Co. at a cost of £4,400 (which translates in 2021 US Dollars to $610,000 without considering its additional historic value). The Russian fringe style required a repetition of multiple bars or rays, the tallest of these found at the center with rays to the left and right of center decreasing in height until the kokoshnik-style tiara’s rays dropped away near the back of the head. Like most Russian fringe tiaras, Alix’s could be converted into a necklace. At Alexandra’s death, her British Russian fringe tiara was inherited by her daughter-in-law Queen Mary who left it at her death to her granddaughter the present queen—Elizabeth II – who has been seen numerous times during her reign wearing it. The original tiara included a large ruby at the center base, in the same style as her sister Minnie’s grandest Russian fringe tiara, but this was removed when Queen Mary had it reframed after inheriting it in 1925.
    40. Most Russian fringe tiaras have sharp pointed tips as the word kokoshnik translates into English as “cock’s comb” reflecting the jagged tips of the skin folds of a rooster’s crown. Both Minnie’s grand kokosnik diadem and the copy made as a gift in England for Alix were in contrast round at the top. 365 peeresses of the United Kingdom, led by the Marchioness of Salisbury and Ailesbury, Countess Spencer, and the Countess of Cork made a gift of the tiara to the Princess of Wales. It was created by Garrard and Co. and a document bearing the signatures of each peeress was included in the packaging. This tiara was inherited by the current queen and is often worn by her on state occasions. (Source: Hugh Roberts, The Queen’s Diamonds, London: Royal Collections Publications, 2011, p. 102)
    41. In early Winterhalter portraits of Queen Victoria, she appears in a Russian fringe tiara suggesting that Victoria started the Russian trend in England. In point of fact, the tiara seen in those portraits, and which the queen frequently wore in her early reign, had been made as a necklace for Queen Adelaide in 1831. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the George III fringe tiara, supposedly a gift from that king to his wife Queen Charlotte but this is not so. It started out as a necklace presented to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen when she married the Duke of Clarence who later became King William IV. When Adelaide died she left the jewel to young Queen Victoria and in time she had a frame made for it so as to wear it as a tiara but the gem was never designed in the style of a la russe. It merely took on that theme once Victoria began wearing it as a head ornament. (Source: Hugh Roberts, The Queen’s Diamonds, London: Royal Collections Publications, 2011, p. 28)
    42. Stephano Papi, Jewels of the Romanovs: Family and Court. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2010, p. 52.
    43. Boris Ometev and John Stuart, St. Petersburg: Portrait of an Imperial City. New York: Vendome Press, 1990, p. 16
    1. Boris Ometev and John Stuart, St. Petersburg: Portrait of an Imperial City. New York: Vendome Press, 1990, p. 16
    2. The Te Deum is also known as the Ambrosian Hymn in the Latin Rite and also as the Song of the Church. It is an early Christian hymn of praise to the Holy Trinity taking its name from the opening words of the hymn in Latin— Te Deum laudamus, which translates: “Thee, O God, we praise.” So important is this prayer that it is said to be second only to the Lord’s Prayer in Christian life. In Europe the Catholic Mass is often referred to as a Te Deum because this prayer is sung at its conclusion. The Orthodox sing this hymn of praise at the most important of ecclesial events.
    3. Coryne Hall. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 49.
    4. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Tsar Alexander II file)
    5. RA
    6. Coryne Hall. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 51.
    7. Ukase translates directly to imposition of law but the more accurate English language translation would be ‘edict’ or ‘decree.’ These laws of the tsar always took immediate effect across the empire. The term was sometimes applied to laws passed by the government and decrees made by the heads of the Orthodox Church but technically, an imperial ukase meant the ‘will of the tsar’ and thus carried with it untold power to impose immediate change.
    8. The serfs were no better than the slaves in the American South. They had no rights and were the chattel of those in society who owned them. Their lives were bleak and typically short and brutality was the expected way of life. Women were overworked and when young and good looking they became the playthings of their masters and their sons before discarded like so much rubbish. Many millions of Russians fell under this classification with generation upon generation of families being locked into total poverty and servitude and yet these people worshiped their tsar who was in far off Saint Petersburg, ‘unaware of their plight.’ For the serfs, the tsar was the closest person to God on earth; not so the members of the Orthodox Church.
    9. Kyril Fitzlyon and Tatiana Browning, Before the Revolution, Allen Lane: London, 1977, pp.25-6.
    10. In 2021 this sum would roughly be the equivalent of USD $267,000,000.
    11. Before the empire began to aggressively expand there were few Jews living inside the Russian state. Once its borders began to stretch out in every direction the peoples newly subjugated included large numbers of Jews which the Orthodox regime could not respect as they were not Christian. If you were not Orthodox you could not be respected. The newly acquired lands where large populations of Jews resided were termed the “Pale of Settlement” and under law Jews were forced to remain inside these territories. They could not reside elsewhere in Russia, certainly not inside the most important cities, and some cities within the Pale of Settlement were also closed to them. The lands included in the Pale of Settlement, which was nothing more than internal exile in strictly controlled areas, included: Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Poland, Lithuania, and Moldova. Polish Catholics were also considered to be restricted within the Pale but because they were Christians, albeit not Orthodox, a lessoning of the strict confinement laws was permitted. Not so for the Jews.
    12. Known as “Narodnaya Volya”
    13. Many Russian Jews in the nineteenth century were well educated and the product of the Enlightenment as much as they could be as a suppressed race within Russian society. As such, with whatever education they were able to achieve, they knew that the totalitarian system under which they lived was unjust. These Jews typically renounced their religious beliefs, as well; causing great pain to devout family members they would have to leave behind once they embraced both atheism and belief in violent revolution. Many of them soon led the nihilist movement in Russia. It needs to be clear that this movement had many Orthodox Russians as members, as well. Because it was easier for Russian authorities to identify terrorists groups by race, especially as accusing Jews helped their desired Russianization efforts as they wished to extinguish all non-Orthodox peoples from the empire, the government was eager to identify the Jews as leaders of revolution and as authors of terrorism in the state.
    14. Nihilism is a philosophical rejection of all forms of controlled society believing that the fundamental beliefs of humanity do not really exist. The political element of this philosophy is a rejection of the most fundamental social and political structures including all forms of government, the core family, and natural and imposed law, and the established church.
    15. E. A. Almedingen. Alexander II. London: Bodley Head, 1962, p. 32
    16. He was the prince who had married against the tsar’s wishes, taking as his bride his own sister’s lady-in-waiting, Countess Julie von Hauke, who later became the Princess of Battenberg—Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh’s great grandmother.
    17. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file).
    18. E.A. Almedingen, Alexander II. London: Bodley Head, 1962, p. 366.
    19. The diplomatic notes of Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, KP, GCB, GCMG, GCIE, PC, (1826-1902) who served in Russia as Great Britain’s ambassador to the Imperial Court from 1879 to 1881, a posting he accepted after his tenure as Governor General of Canada (1872-1878) came to a close.
    20. Twenty-four year old Khalturin fled that night to Moscow and then on to Odessa where the following year he and a fellow nihilist killed a police general sent there to squelch the terrorist movement. During their attempted escape a nearby crowd captured them and they were both hanged on 22 March 1882. As both had given false names and presented forged identity papers, Saint Petersburg authorities did not know that they had caught the palace bomber. It was not until other nihilists were later captured that his real identity was revealed.
    21. The White House would fit inside the Winter Palace forty times over; Buckingham Palace, three times. By overall square footage, Versailles is larger than the Winter Palace complex.
    22. Rice, Tamara Talbot. Elizabeth: Empress of Russia. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970, p.187.
    23. The iconic deep jade green and white paint scheme on the Winter Palace, so familiar in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and which greatly enhances its exterior beauty, was actually added by the Soviet regime.
    24. In Europe the main floor is referred to as the ground floor, the floor above it is known as the first floor and the floor above it as the second. In the United States, what the Europeans refer to as the first floor, would be understood to be the second floor, and so when referring to the apartments of the imperial family being placed on the first floor of the palace, it should be understood that this floor was found above the main, or the ground, floor of the palace.
    25. This was not an inconvenience for Alexander of Bulgaria as the Warsaw Train Station, indeed every major station in Russia, had a very imposing yet comfortable imperial reception hall and so the young prince waited for his father in deluxe yet private comfort. In transliterated Russian, the station was known as Varshavsky Vokzal.
    26. Saint Petersburg Telegraph Agency: Report transmitted to all European capitals. (Source: The Vatican Secret Archives: Estero, Titolo IX, Affari Esteri, Rubriche №: 268 (1880).
    27. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg; (Tsar Alexander II file).
    28. Ibid
    29. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg; (Tsar Alexander II file).
    30. Saint Petersburg Telegraph Agency: Report transmitted to all European capitals. (Source: The Vatican Secret Archives: Estero, Titolo IX, Affari Esteri, Rubriche №: 268 (1880).
2

Book Two – Adventure, Wealth, Power and Scandal

    1. Aronson, Theo. A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Thistle Publishing, 2014, p.71
    2. RA-Denmark (Christian IX)
    3. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 31.
    4. Today the Brockdorff Palace is the city home of Crown Prince Frederick and Crown Princess Mary and their children.
    5. Had she been able to succeed to the throne of Sweden, as Carl XV wished, Princess Louisa would have been Queen of both Sweden and Norway as both nations were still joined together under the Swedish crown at that time.
    6. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 31.
    7. As the daughter of Prince Christian, she enjoyed the predicate of ‘Highness’ from 1853 to 1863 at which time she rose to the rank of ‘Royal Highness’ at her father’s ascension as Christian IX.
    8. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p.18.
    9. It is believed that Freddy shared the contents of the note with his father the king but no one else and that it was thereafter destroyed.
    10. Noble Frankland, Witness of a Century: The Life and Times of Prince Arthur Duke of Connaught. London: Shepheard-Walwyn: 1993, p. 45.
    11. These events in the Danish royal family took place before Marie Alexandrovna married Alfred and before Marie of Mecklenburg married Grand Duke Vladimir and so both Alfred and Vladimir were also on Queen Louise’s list of prospective husbands for Thyra. As the Danes were in Athens awaiting Thyra’s child’s birth, Arthur never again considered her as a potential wife.
    12. Ernst August (21 September 1845 – 14 November 1923) was the crown prince of Hanover. He was the son of the last reigning king (rendered in German as Hannover). His father King George V of Hanover was a first cousin of Queen Victoria. When Bismarck seized Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark, he likewise took as spoils of war the entire Kingdom of Hanover along with the Duchy of Nassau and much of the Hesse-Cassel grand duchy. He also seized the great wealth of the House of Hanover. Known as the Guelph Fund, the Hanover wealth was massive. Bismarck later used part of it to bribe King Ludwig II of Bavaria to proclaim Wilhelm I of Prussia as first German emperor at Versailles. Ludwig used these funds to build his fanciful palaces and romantic castles across Bavaria.
    13. King Willem III was thirty-six years Thyra’s senior. He was not searching for romance. He needed an heir, his first wife, Sophie of Wurttemberg, had died in 1877, and he needed to marry so as to produce the next Dutch king. Eventually he settled on Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont who was only twenty-one at the time. Queen Emma only became pregnant once and this resulted in the birth of a daughter who eventually became one of the Netherlands’ most important monarchs as Queen Wilhelmina.
    14. Alexander of the Netherlands was the third son and had briefly been the Prince of Orange, the title for the Crown Prince of the Netherlands. He came to this position at the death of his oldest brother William who had been Prince of Orange from his birth until his death in 1879. William wanted to marry a Dutch countess which was forbidden him because she was not of royal birth. When this love was denied him, William went into self-imposed exile in Paris where his great wealth and title opened every door for him. He lived a life there filled with sex, drink, and excessive partying dying at age thirty-eight. The king’s second son, Prince Maurits, died at age six thus passing the title of Prince of Orange onto Alexander who was of initial interest to Thyra but who also died young, at age thirty-two. It was because of the death of all of his legitimate sons that old King Willem III needed to marry a girl who could produce an heir.
    15. RA – Windsor (George V/Hanover)
    16. Aronson, Theo. A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Thistle Publishing, 2014, p. 79.
    17. Frederica married Baron Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen (1843–1932) at St. George’s Chapel Windsor. Afterwards the queen gave her cousin a grace and favor residence at Hampton Court Palace where they lived for the remainder of their lives.
    18. RA/Add/A/17/882.
    19. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 19.
    20. RA-Denmark (Christian IX)
    21. Aronson, Theo. A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Thistle Publishing, 2014, p. 79.
    22. Vic/Add/MSS
    23. As a descendent of George II and thus subject to the Royal Marriages Act and other acts appertaining thereto, Ernst August was required to receive the formal consent of Queen Victoria in order that the marriage would be considered fully valid. In her Privy Council Queen Victoria formally granted her permission as follows:

      “Royal consent to the marriage of the Duke of Cumberland (Sep 27, 1878):

      Victoria R (actual signature of the monarch) –

      Victoria by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen Defender of the Faith to All to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting! Whereas by an Act of Parliament instituted “An Act for the better regulating the future marriages of the Royal Family” it is amongst other things enacted “That no Descendant of the Body of His Majesty King George the Second, Male or Female (other than the issue of Princesses who have married, or may hereafter marry into Foreign Families) shall be capable of contracting Matrimony without the previous consent of His Majesty, His Heirs or Successors, signified under the Great Seal” Now Know Ye that We have consented, and do by these Presents signify Our Consent to the contracting of Matrimony between Our Dear Cousin His Royal Highness The Prince Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Earl of Armagh, Knight of Our Most Noble Order of the Garter, and Her Royal Highness Thyra Amélie Caroline Charlotte Anne daughter of His Majesty the King of Denmark. In Witness whereof We have caused Our Great Seal to be affixed to these Presents. Given at Our Court at Saint James’s the Twenty Seventh Day of September 1878 in the Forty Second Year of Our Reign. By the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.” (Signed with Her Own Hand): National Archives: HO 124/18.

    24. The Guelph Fund in its entirety would be restored in May 1913 when the German Kaiser’s daughter, Viktoria Luise, married Prince Ernst August of Hanover. The two royal houses were reconciled by this marriage although the kingdom of Hanover was never restored to the Guelphs. Young Prince Ernst August did ascend the ducal throne of Brunswick, which they had also lost to Prussian control, the day before his marriage to the Kaiser’s daughter.
    25. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 226.
    26. Thyra and Ernst August’s great-grandson, Ernst-August V, is married to Princess Caroline of Monaco, the eldest daughter of Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace. The couple had one daughter together, Princess Alexandra, before informally separating. Prince Ernst August had two sons from a previous marriage and Princess Caroline had three children, two sons and a daughter, by her previous marriage.
    27. Aronson, Theo. A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Thistle Publishing, 2014, pp. 279-80
    28. The refrain of this old Scandinavian song sums up the Danish family’s loyalty: “In Denmark I was born, there I belong; there are my roots; that is where my world stretches from…”
    29. There were so many women known as Marie in the family; especially in Russia that each was given a nickname by which they were generally known.
    30. There was talk early on that he was particularly close during those first years at sea with his batman Klein and his closest friend on board the Sjaelland who went on to become Admiral Evers.
    31. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 262
    32. Secret Vatican Archives: Fondo Moderno: estero, titolo IX – affari esteri. Rubriche: №248.
    33. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 260.
    34. The chateau is an impressive sixteenth century red brick and limestone Renaissance castle that stands on the edge of the town of Eu in Normandy very close to the English Channel. It has been the country retreat of the Orleans family since its construction and King Louis-Phillipe twice entertained Queen Victoria there during her state visits to France.
    35. £3,000 payable in 1885 converts to the spending power in 2021 to $87,000.

      £8,000 payable in 1885 converts to the spending power in 2021 to $225,000.

    1. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 264.
    2. The Bulgarian throne was eventually offered to Marie d’Orleans’ cousin Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg who was an Orleanist on his mother’s side. This is the Ferdinand of Bulgaria who later declared himself “Tsar of Bulgaria” and whom the world came to call “Foxy Ferdinand.”
    3. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hall. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and his Descendants. East Richmond Heights, CA: Eurohistory.com, 2014, p. 263.
    4. Ibid
    5. George of Greece was a close friend to his first cousins, Albert Victor (Eddy) of Wales and Nicholas II of Russia. He accompanied Nicholas when he became tsarevitch on his grand tour of the Orient. More than one author has suggested that while in Japan George introduced Nicholas to a gay brothel at which a fight broke out. The official story, however, has always been that a madman attacked them in their carriage in a public square. There is no way to arrive at the truth as no first hand reports, such as diaries, survive. Big George eventually married Princess Marie Bonaparte, of the non-reigning branch of the French Imperial family. She was fabulously wealthy in her own right having inherited from her mother Marie Blanc the Monte Carlo Casino fortune of her grandfather, casino founder Camille Blanc.
    6. Although a unified empire after 1871, Germany at this time remained a confederation of numerous small monarchical states. Rumpenheim stood within Hesse-Cassel, one of the larger states within the new empire. As such, those that hated “Germany” could still show fondness for one of the confederated states within it as hatred more or less was always reserved for Prussia, the dominate state within the empire, and typically the main aggressor in German affairs.
    7. Aronson, Theo. A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Thistle Publishing, 2014, p. 46.
    8. Ibid
    9. Ibid
    10. Polar Star became the exclusive yacht of the Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna in 1895. In 1893 Nicholas II ordered another, larger yacht from the Burmeister & Wain Shipyards in Copenhagen. It was named The Standardt and was extensively reserved for the tsar’s use. The Standardt was 420 feet in length, and was then the largest private yacht afloat. Although it was the finest yacht at that time, it was delivered to the tsar with a company of rats that had found a home in it while the yacht was being built in Denmark. Bertie was so impressed by its size and beauty that he secretly obtained maritime blueprints of the yacht which came to form the model for his new yacht, the HMY Victoria and Albert III.
    11. The two smaller yachts often accompanied the Victoria and Albert III, carrying luggage, supplies and the overflow of the Household officials accompanying the journey.
    12. Xavier Paoli, My Royal Clients, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1911, p. 81.
    13. RA-Denmark (Fredrik VIII file)
    14. RA/Add/QA/17/882
    15. Aronson, Theo. A Family of Kings: The Descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Thistle Publishing, 2014, p.73
    16. A cousin to Queen Victoria; later the mother of Queen Mary.
    17. Letters of Queen Victoria to Crown Princess Victoria (1858-1887)
    18. This translates to ‘the Empress Dagmar’ which is how the Danes referred to her. They never accepted her as Marie Feodorovna and few outside the family knew of her familiar name, Minnie.
    19. The anthem translates to King Christian Stood by the Mast, a naval patriotic anthem equal to the official National Anthem in Denmark but played typically in the presence of the monarch. God Save the Queen became God Save the King when Queen Victoria died in 1901 and Bertie succeeded as King Edward VII. God Save the Tsar is sometimes referred to as The Prince Lvov Hymn as the melody was written by a Russian prince by this name.
    1. Van Der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children, Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p. 22.
    2. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Stroud, Gloucestershire: History Press, 2011, p. 38.
    3. Van Der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children, Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p. 22.
    4. RA/Add/U/32, 17 March 1872.
    5. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Stroud, Gloucestershire: History Press, 2011, p. 40.
    6. In time, Edward Carpenter became an ardent socialist and anti-monarchist. He also became the first British politician to campaign for gay rights and official recognition and faced arrest on numerous occasions as a result. Because of this activity, Carpenter was considered to be quite notorious and socially unacceptable.
    7. Carpenter, Edward. My Days and Dreams, London: Allen and Unwin, 1916, p. 77.
    8. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Stroud, Gloucestershire : History Press, 2011, p. 48.
    9. Hoey, Brian. The Royal Yacht Britannia, Somerset: Haynes Publishing, 1995, p. 18.
    10. Ibid
    11. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, children were treated as such through to puberty but almost immediately after passing through this stage of life they were fully considered adults. This is why girls were married off at such young ages and boys were given much responsibility and were encouraged to find a wife no later than age eighteen. There was no such thing as adolescence, a time today to transition over a long period from youth to adulthood.
    12. This comment has been attributed to King Edward VIII, later the Duke of Windsor, when speaking later in life about his three aunts: Louise, Victoria and Maud.
    13. Van Der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children, Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p. 33.
    14. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns, edited by Colin Welch. New York: E.F. Dutton and Co., Inc., 1952, p. 198.
    15. Marie Louise, Princess. My Memories of Six Reigns, London: Evans Brothers Publishing, 1979, p. 43.
    16. Ibid
    17. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Stroud, Gloucestershire: History Press, 2011, p. 52.
    18. Ibid
    19. His father was Duke Alexander of Württemberg, the son of Duke Louis while his mother was Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde – a Hungarian aristocrat. The marriage was morganatic, meaning that Francis had no succession rights in the Kingdom of Württemberg or royal rank. At birth he was given his mother’s new title, awarded to her after her marriage, and therefore was known initially as Count Francis von Hohenstein. Claudine died tragically at age twenty-nine when while at a military exercise she fell from her horse and was trampled to death. King William I of Württemberg elevated the Hohensteins to princely rank with the title of Teck. King Charles I of Württemberg further elevated Francis to the rank of Duke of Teck with the predicate of ‘Serene Highness’ five years after marrying “Fat Mary.” Their daughter Victoria Mary would later marry Bertie and Alix’s son George and became Queen Mary, the grandmother of the present monarch: Elizabeth II. Queen Victoria elevated the Duke of Teck to the rank of “Highness” in the United Kingdom but spiteful relations on the Continent refused to recognize this exalted position when he was in their midst.
    20. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Stroud, Gloucestershire: History Press, 2011, p. 59.
    21. Nicholson, Harold, King George the Fifth, London: Constable, 1952, p. 50.
    22. Ibid. pp. 41 – 42.
    23. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underground, New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p. 50.
    24. Van Der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children, Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p.40.
    25. Marie, Queen of Romania, The Story of My Life, 3 Volumes, 1934-1935, p. 43.
    26. Hough, Richard. Edward and Alexandra, New York: Saint Martin’s Press, 1992. p. 117.
    27. Ibid., p. 154.
    28. Later in life, having been refused the man she wished to marry (Lord Rosebery) because he was a subject of her grandmother, she became known within the family as the ‘Snipe’ because of her growing elongated nose, features that suggested misery, and her negative commentary and criticism of everyone from the monarch to members of the government. As an adult she became her mother’s servant and companion and it was not until Alix’s death in 1925 that she finally gained adult freedom.
    29. Princess Maud was referred to within the Wales family as ‘little Harry’ although within the wider family Maudie was used. She earned this name from her father whose close friend, Admiral Harry Keppel, she tended to mimic; both went about stomping their foot when angry. In the same way, within the Wales family, Louise was also called ‘Toots’ and Victoria was known as ‘Gawks.’
    30. Van Der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children, Gloucester: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p.27.
    31. Marie, Queen of Romania, The Story of My Life, 3 Volumes., 1934-1935, p. 43.
    32. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 144.
    33. Ibid, p. 141.
    34. Victorians idealized and romanticized young manhood; the queen greatly worried about the boys learning about masturbation and eventually entering into sexual liaisons with their fellow cadets or officers and so Dalton was charged by her to lecture both the officers and the cadets about the evils of both sins without specifically mentioning either vice. The queen wanted these vices denounced but she could not permit her grandsons to hear the actual words describing them. She demanded that Dalton keep Eddy and George ignorant of these facts of life. As a consequence, Dalton seldom left the boys’ side and when later they set out to sea, and when shore leave was granted they were both constrained as to where they could go and with whom.
    35. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 144.
    36. Gore, John. King George the Fifth: A Personal Memoir. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2007 (a reprint), pp. 32 – 33.
    37. Ibid., p. 32.
    38. RA/AA/28/6
    1. One of Bertie’s lovers was Marie Blanche Sampayo (1849-1890). Marie was the daughter of a French diplomat and an American socialite. She was married to a Neapolitan nobleman with the title of Duke of Caracciolo. During the time that she was conducting an affair with the Prince of Wales, Marie became pregnant. A daughter was born to her on 8 August 1871 and Bertie was named godfather. It was generally known at the time Marie and her husband had ceased marriage relations. So the daughter, named Olga, was uncommonly referred to as illegitimate (even though she was born within a valid marriage). It was rumored from the outset that Bertie was the father and his generous support of mother and child did not go unnoticed. Olga and Marie moved to Dieppe on the Normandy coast—in a home reported to have been purchased for them by the Prince of Wales who saw to all of their material needs. Although no claims were made, it was generally believed that Olga was Bertie’s daughter but Marie also had been conducting an affair at that same critical time with the Polish Prince Stanislaus Poniatowski. Philippe Julian, a well-known French historian of that period, wrote that Bertie believed himself to be the girl’s biological father whether it was true or not.
    2. Walton Hall is now a luxury hotel.
    3. Lowry Egerton Cole was the 4th Earl of Enniskillen and a knight of the Order of Saint Patrick. He lived between 21 December 1845 and 28 April 1924. He was styled Viscount Cole from 1850 to 1886 at the time of the Mordaunt case. He was an Irish peer and Conservative Member of Parliament.
    4. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent, New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2014, p. 152.
    5. Ibid
    6. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra, Boston: Houghton and Mifflin and Company, 1969, p. 109.
    7. Ibid
    8. In the end, the length of their stay did not matter as on 15 July the Franco-Prussian war erupted and Bertie, Alix and their children were forced to return home immediately.
    9. Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve. For a long period, it was commonly known as tic douloureux. This disorder is characterized by episodes of intense facial pain along the trigeminal nerve divisions which, because of the severity of the resulting pain, is often referred to as the ‘suicide disease’ as many who suffered with it took their own lives rather than endure it any longer. Alix could not have experienced it in its most acute stage as it would have been crippling in those days without any known pain relief which certainly would have had to be reported had something been prescribed. If she did suffer from a form of this ailment as may be the case, and history tells us that she did experience some known symptoms, it had to be a mild form.
    10. RA/VIC/ Z452/20 (Alix to Queen Victoria by telegram, 5 April 1877).
    11. RA/AA/36/21
    12. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file, 1878).
    13. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra, Boston: Houghton and Mifflin and Company, 1969, p. 138.
    14. Ibid, p. 142.
    15. RA/A/VIC/November 1878
    16. RA/B/59/21
    17. RA/Dalton Papers, 11 December 1878.
    18. “Absence Seizures” involve brief, sudden lapses of consciousness. They are more common in children than adults. Someone having an absence seizure may look like he or she is staring into space for a few seconds of time. This type of seizure usually doesn’t lead to physical injury [Mayo Clinic].
    19. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent, New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2014, p. 250.
    20. RA/VIC/Z452/128
    21. RA/VIC/Add /A2/ 18
    22. The Gladstone Diaries, Vol. 9, ed. H. C. G. Matthew (Clarendon Press, 1986), p. 317.
    23. Marie Louise, Princess. My Memories of Six Reigns, London: Evans Brothers Publishing, 1979, p. 161
    24. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin and Company, 1969, p. 100.
    25. Noel, Gerard. Princess Alice: Queen Victoria’s Forgotten Daughter. London: Constable and Company Limited, 1985, p.241.
    26. Ibid
    27. Ibid
    28. RA/EDWVII/December 1878
    1. Ometev, Boris and John Stuart. Saint Petersburg: Portrait of an Imperial City. New York: Vendome Press, 1990, p.196.
    2. Translating into English as: chamber pages; these were the young men seen carrying the trains of the mantels of the tsar and tsarina at coronations, and the long trains on the court dresses of the empress and the grand duchesses on gala occasions.
    3. Ometev, Boris and John Stuart. Saint Petersburg: Portrait of an Imperial City, New York: Vendome Press, 1990, p.184.
    4. Quarenghi (21 September 1744 – 2 March 1817) was called the last of the great architect of Italy (in Russia) and was responsible for introducing the Palladian style for which he is most famous. His projects, particularly in Saint Petersburg, were the last great building projects in imperial Russia, nearly all of them still standing in 2019. One of his most famous works was the Alexander Palace, originally called the New Palace, built at Tsarskoye-Selo by Catherine’s orders as a gift for her grandson. It was the last home of Tsar Nicholas II. They were arrested there during the revolution in 1917.
    5. In nineteenth century Europe Court protocol required women being presented to a monarch to perform the act of reverence known as the Court curtsy. This was the most formal act of reverence paid at court by a woman, its counterpart for males being a deep bow at the waist. Unlike the modern curtsy seen today, sort of a swift bob at the knees, the court curtsy required a lady to drop to the heel of her foot in a solemn, slow motion so that she almost touched the floor as she made her act of reverence to her sovereign. She accomplished this act while bowing her head forward but while keeping her back perfectly straight at the same time. It required a great deal of practice to perfect and no noblewoman wanted to falter when performing it as it would cause great embarrassment to her and to her family if she failed at it.
    6. Whereas the Corps des Pages was established to properly educate the sons of the highest nobility who planned to enter military service, and whereas the Smolny Institute prepared young ladies for life at Court, or life in a prestigious marriage, there were other fine academies in Saint Petersburg also serving the higher echelons of society. First amongst these was the Alexander Lyceum which was created by Alexander I for the sons of prominent government officials, politicians, diplomats, and foreign high-born citizens as well as those entering into the legal profession.

      The May School was established for the high-middle class, educating the sons of prominent intellectuals and university professionals. It stressed the classics as well as subjects of the Enlightenment such as modern philosophy and the arts. The students referred to themselves as the Nevsky Pickwickians, taking this name from Charles Dickens’ great work – The Pickwick Papers. It had an additional meaning in that those called Pickwickians also meant that they exhibited idiosyncratic or unusual ways. The May School took great pride in the fact that their alumni introduced into Russia the Art Nouveau movement. Of course there were many other academies and schools in the capital as well as around Russia, many under imperial patronage, church patronage, or established by charities.

    7. Pope Pius IX was aging and could not make the trip to Paris but, also, it should be said that papal protocol at that time precluded popes from making trips of a social nature, such as the grand opening of the Paris Exhibition. Of the eighty heads of state invited, nearly all of them monarchs, only two – Pius IX and Queen Victoria, declined Napoleon III’s invitation. Victoria was represented by the Prince of Wales and the pope by Cardinal-Secretary of State Giacomo Antonelli.
    8. RA/VIC/Letters, 1862 – 1885, I, 423
    9. The empress was the great aunt of Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt and thus the great aunt by marriage of Victoria’s daughter Alice. In those days, an insult to the family one married into was as great as an insult to one’s own family and so Victoria saw the cruel manner in which the tsar treated his wife as a personal insult to her daughter’s family.
    10. The Tour d’Argent was not yet as famous as it is today but after the three emperors dined there it became the most important public restaurant in Paris.
    11. Bertie was a gourmand and he, too, knew the best delicacies available in the capitals of Europe so at the same time that Alexander, Sasha, Minnie, Vladimir and Miechen and the other Romanovs were enjoying the new Parisian delicacy, Bertie was already familiar with it and served it at his tables at Sandringham and Marlborough House.
    12. The chatelaine chosen by the tsar as chaperone was the thirty-year-old cousin to the Dolgoruky sisters – Mlle. Schebeko – who very much fostered the budding relationship between the tsar and her young cousin.
    13. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Catherine Dolgoruky file).
    14. Four children would be born to her and the tsar during the 1870s: George Alexandrovitch (1872), Olga Alexandrovna (1873), Boris Alexandrovitch (1876), and Catherine Alexandrovna (1878). Three lived to adulthood but Boris lived only six weeks.
    15. Van Der Kiste, John. The Romanovs 1818-1959. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, p. 55.
    16. Many scholars have reported that the rooms given Catherine and her children were directly above those of the empress but this is not so. Catherine’s apartment was indeed on the floor above the empress but they were further along the corridor and to the east and opened out onto an interior courtyard of the palace rather than outward -looking onto the Neva which was the view that the empress enjoyed most.
    17. Histories relate that Mi’lord was a dog black in color when actually he was a mahogany color typical of the Irish Setter breed. This breed stemmed from a more ancient dog known as the Irish Red and White Setter which was saved from extinction by an Irish priest, Canon Noble Huston. The current and well-known breed of Irish Setter was crossbred with larger breeds in the nineteenth century including the black and tan Scottish Gordon Setter. This mix created in some initial offspring a blackest hue which remained until this defect was finally bred out of the modern Irish Setter breed. Mi’lord was one such Irish setter and the blackish hue resulted from long black hairs atop his mahogany coloring as a result of his Gordon Setter bloodlines.
    18. The Summer Palace in Saint Petersburg, not to be confused with the Summer Palace at Peterhof, is a park complex two blocks northeast of the Winter Palace and Hermitage Museum along the shores of the Neva River. It was built by Peter ‘the Great’ and was landscaped by the most famous Dutch, French, English, and later Russian landscape architects and gardeners of the past two centuries. Today it remains a favorite public park in the former capital city. Its long gravel alleys are lined by tall plane trees that create a canopy overhead while one hundred larger-than-life Carrera marble statues of allegorical figures dot the landscape. Even though Tsar Alexander II was nearly killed by an assassin while in the park, it was his favorite site in Saint Petersburg and he looked forward to walking Mi’lord there as often as his schedule would permit. It was the only place in Saint Petersburg were ordinary Russians could glance upon their tsar in ordinary circumstances.
    19. Van Der Kiste, John. The Romanovs 1818-1959. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, p. 47.
    20. Tarsaidze, Alexander. Katya: Wife Before God. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970, p. 90.
    21. Van Der Kiste, John. The Romanovs 1818-1959. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, p. 55
    22. Alexander returned several times by train to the Winter Palace to be seen publicly inquiring about the empress’ health but he never actually went to her rooms during these visits and soon after left again to be with Catherine and the children at Pavlovsk.
    23. The tombs of Alexander II and his ill-treated wife, Marie Alexandrovna, rest in the Cathedral of Ss. Peter and Paul within the fortress by that same name. All the other Romanovs buried there have uniform, identical sarcophagi worked in white Carrera marble with gold lettering, but Alexander and his wife’s tombs were carved from Altai Jasper and Ural rhodonite which took twenty-five years to carve and which were only put in place during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II.
    24. Forty days was chosen for the period of formal state mourning in Russia reflecting the forty days of trial, trouble, and hardship found repeatedly throughout the Bible. Once this time of mourning passed, foreign courts and government officials at home were able to return to the normal routine of life. Only the immediate family and closest loved-ones of the deceased lived in an extended period of personal mourning after the conclusion of the solemn forty day period.
    25. Alexander had issued an earlier ukase quietly elevating Catherine from the rank of Serene Highness to that of Highness while still being known as Princess Dolgoruky. Now after their marriage, she and her three children enjoyed the higher standing and rank of Highness, as well, which carried with it the prestige of being princely family closely linked to the imperial house.
    26. The Oldenburg family was a distant branch of the Romanov family, both families being descendants of the house of Holstein-Gottorp. Many members of this family lived at least part of the year in Saint Petersburg fully participating in the Court life while the remainder of the year they returned to their German homeland. Several members of the Oldenburg family, however, settled permanently in Russia. These were considered full members of the Romanov dynasty but without any rights of succession or the privileges granted to those of grand ducal rank.

      The Leuchtenberg family descended from Eugene de Beauharnais, stepson of Napoleon I. When Eugene married into the Bavarian royal family, he was given the title of Duke of Leuchtenberg by the Bavarian king. His grandson married the daughter of Tsar Nicholas I (1796 – 1855) who re-created the title ‘Duke of Leuchtenberg’ as a Russian-Finnish title, at the same time elevating this branch of the family to the rank of Imperial Highness with full membership in the imperial family of Russia but without succession rights; their precedence at Court following the least of the grand dukes.

    27. The actual source of the leaked information to the Prussians was the Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna whose friendship with the Bismarcks greatly disturbed the tsar and the tsarevitch. (Source: The Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg, (Tsar Alexander II file)).
    28. Radzinsky, Edward. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005, p. 154.
    29. Ibid
    30. Ibid, pp. 377 – 378.
    31. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file).
    32. Barhatova and Burkova, The Danish Princess-the Russian Empress, [privately printed] pp. 72 – 73.
    33. Ibid, p. 50.
    34. Radzinsky, Edward. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005, p.154.
    35. Ibid
    36. Almedingen, E.M. An Unbroken Unity: A Memoir of Grand Duchess Serge of Russia, 1864 – 1918. London, Bodley Head, 1964, p. 344.
    37. Ibid
    1. The Imperial House of Romanov was subdivided into groupings, each named for the senior male member of that line. The tsar’s sons were known as the Alexandrovitchi. The sons of the Grand Duke Vladimir were thereafter known as the Vladimirovitchi, and so on. The branch closest in blood to the reigning tsar enjoyed highest precedence at Court. Each subsequent branch followed by closeness of blood until each branch of the family greeted the tsar in turn.
    2. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    3. Saint Petersburg Telegraph Agency: (Source: The Vatican Secret Archives: Estero, Titolo IX, Affari Esteri, Rubriche №: 268 (1880).
    4. In royal house protocol, once a princess of one country married into another, she was no longer considered a member of the royal house of her birth, meaning that she no longer had succession rights or was bound by house law. She was, however, a member of the royal family of her birth nation as one remains a family member no matter where life takes you. Marie Alexandrovna became a member of the Royal House of Great Britain upon her marriage but was always considered a Romanov grand duchess by birth.
    5. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    6. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 76.
    7. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    8. Ibid
    9. Ibid
    10. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    11. Radzinsky, Edward. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005, p. 157.
    12. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p.75.
    13. Catherine’s morganatic status made it impossible for her to be considered the “first lady of the empire” but the tsar’s determination to elevate his wife to this position continued to anger Sasha and Minnie as well as the rest of the Romanov family; all of whom believed that the tsar would soon name her his empress-consort.
    14. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    15. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    16. Van Der Kiste, John. The Romanovs 1818-1959. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, pp. 88-89.
    17. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    18. The Okhrana was formed in 1866 as the Department for Protecting Order and Public Peace. For all intent and purpose it was a secret police organization within the Russian Empire. Later it became a part of the Ministry of the Interior and was given near dictatorial powers in rooting out terror and the nihilists. It had a division that infiltrated these groups. Many prominent Russians served as secret informers of the Okhrana thus supplementing the spies that were in their formal employ.
    19. Tarsaidze, Alexander. Katya: Wife Before God. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970, p. 92.
    20. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    21. The tsar’s impressive, steel plated carriage was a gift from Napoleon III in recognition of the improved relationship between Russia and France.
    22. Gelardi, Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 96.
    23. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    24. Ibid
    25. Ibid
    26. Ibid
    27. The common folk along the route to the Winter Palace collected debris, including the tsar’s body parts, as relics more so than macabre souvenirs, before the authorities could seal the area. Many women dipped their headscarves in the tsar’s blood as well.
    28. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander II file)
    29. Ibid, (Tsar Alexander III file)
    30. Radzinsky, Edward. Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005, p. 158.
    31. Ibid
    32. Rysakov turned on his fellow conspirators, including Sophie Perovskaya, in hope of being spared a death sentence. Because of his testimony the other co-conspirators, Kibalchich and Mikhailov, were located, arrested and charged. His hoped-for pardon never materialized and he went to the gallows with the other nihilists who shunned him as a traitor to the cause. He was the last to hang, being forced to watch the three others before him.
    1. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Tsar Alexander III file)
    2. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    3. Ibid
    4. Ibid
    5. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Pobedonostsev file).
    6. Ibid
    7. Ibid
    8. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Tsar Alexander III file)
    9. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Anitchkov Palace file/cross referenced to Tsar Alexander III file)
    10. Victoria, Crown Princess of Prussia, to Queen Victoria, March 14, 1881, in Sir Frederick Ponsonby, ed., Letters of the Empress Frederick, (London: Macmillan and Company, Ltd., 1929), pp. 184 – 186.
    11. As a norm at this time, the Orthodox Church blocked embalming for everyone except the imperial family – an exception being granted to them because they had to be placed on view for so long. As such, the funeral industry never fully developed in Russia during the empire and when a Romanov was embalmed, the results were all too often unacceptable by modern standards.
    12. RA/VIC/15 March 1881
    13. Alexander II had provided so well for his beloved second wife that she and her children were able to live a lavish lifestyle in Paris after his death. She maintained a large city establishment and a home on the Côte d’Azur as well and to travel between the two she maintained her own rail car. In every way, the Princess Yourievsky lived as a dowager empress, something she could never do in Saint Petersburg. In addition to the income provided her by Alexander II’s Last Will and Testament, Sasha also provided his stepmother and her children with a generous annual supplement of 3,500,000 rubles (equaling $1,855,000 in 1883 US dollars) from the Crown Appanages which added to her security. All of these funds, despite high living and lavish expenditures, lasted to the end of her life, five years after the Russian Revolution.
    14. Empress Marie Feodorovna of Russia to Queen Louise of Denmark, March 4/16, 1881, in Ulstrup, “Marie Feodorovna Through Diaries and Personal Letters,” in Marie Feodorovna, Empress of Russia, pp.140 and 142.
    15. Russian Historical State Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    16. Lord Frederick Spencer-Hamilton was the Second Secretary of the Diplomatic Service (1877–1884) at the time and officially accompanied the Wales to the funeral as the formal representative of the British Foreign Office.
    17. Hamilton, Lord Frederick. The Vanished World of Yesterday, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1950, pp.448-9.
    18. Queen Marie of Romania was a five-year-old child when her grandfather was murdered. She later recalled that she watched his funeral procession from the Winter Palace nursery window. Her parents, the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh had taken all of their children to Russia when they learned of the tsar’s murder. She remembered how devastated her mother was at the time despite being so young herself in 1881.
    19. British Records Office (Foreign Office): from the diplomatic notes of Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Duffern and Ava, KP,GCB,GCSI,GCMG,PC, (1826-1902) who served in Russia as Great Britain’s ambassador to the Imperial Court from 1879 to 1881, a posting that he accepted after his tenure as Governor General of Canada (1872-1878) came to a close.
    20. The Court Circular in Russia was entitled The Official Messenger.
    21. “Alexander III, Alexandrovitch, Emperor of Russia.” Herman Rosenthal, The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
    1. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 86.
    2. Ibid
    3. Ibid
    4. Marie, Queen of Romania. The Story of My Life, (3 Vols.). London: Cassell and Company, 1934, p. 85.
    5. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 87.
    6. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file – cross referenced to the Gatchina file)
    7. Witte, Count Serge. The Memoirs of Count Witte, London: Heinemann, 1921, p. 39.
    8. Minnie like all aristocratic women of her time dressed with the aid of a proper lady’s maid who also cared for her large wardrobe. After her morning bath she dressed in a simple day dress. She would remain in this monochrome outfit until after lunch when she would change into her riding habit or tennis clothes depending on which sport she was scheduled to partake in. She would bathe once more after riding and then dress for afternoon tea. After tea she would wear a more elaborate dress through to the ringing of the dinner gong at which time she dressed for the entertainment scheduled for the evening. Even when dinning as a family, the empress dressed formally every evening. If they were entertaining on a grand scale, her most elaborate jewels would be brought to her to wear. If it was to be a quiet evening at home, she would wear long strands of her favorite pearls and a smaller tiara that may never have been seen by the public.
    9. Vorres, Ian. The Last Grand Duchess. London: Hutchinson, 1964, p. 41.
    10. The Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great (Roman emperor- (ca. AD 306-324) had made pilgrimage to Jerusalem and while there had her troops and attendants dismantle and bring back to Rome the greatest relics of Christianity that had been preserved by the early church. As the Great Schism between East and West would not take place for yet seven hundred years, both the Catholic and the Orthodox churches (to be) had access at this time to relics taken from the True Cross and so the pectoral crosses worn by bishops of both churches contained this relic well into the 20th century. It was one of these ecclesial ornaments that young Nicholas dismantled in order to eat the wax inside.
    11. Letters of Empress Marie to George I of Greece
    12. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Nicholas II file)
    13. Cowles, Virginia. The Last Tsar. London: Morrison and Gibb Ltd., 1977, p. 12.
    14. Letters of Empress Marie to George I of Greece
    15. RA – Denmark
    16. Cowles, Virginia. The Last Tsar. London: Morrison and Gibb, Ltd., 1977, p. 21.
    17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monomakh’s Cap (as displayed on 12 April 2017)
    18. Russia’s last tsar, Nicholas II, desired to be crowned with Monomakh’s Cap but he was persuaded to keep to the tradition of using the Great Imperial State Crown, which he did do.
    19. What is now known as the Imperial Crown of Austria was made in the mitre-form in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen. It was intended as the personal crown of Emperor Rudolf II but because of its beauty and its rare stones, it replaced the hoop crown first used in the eleventh century as the crown of choice for Holy Roman Emperors. At the time of the demise of that empire, this crown became the crown of the Austrian Empire and as homage to Rudolf II, the crown also took his name.
    20. Ironically, when Sasha died and was succeeded by Nicholas II a third crown became necessary as the consort’s crown was to be worn by Minnie at her son’s coronation as Dowager Empress, a position that outranked the still un-crowned empress consort to be, at her son’s coronation. And so a smaller, less valuable crown also had to be created in 1896 for Empress Alexandra Feodorovna.
    21. Burton, E. Legendary Gems or Gems That Made History, Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company, 1986, pp.45-47.
    22. King, Greg. The Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006, p. 360.
    23. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 98.
    24. Ibid
    25. Ibid
    26. The Russian Imperial State Coach was a gift to the Empress Elizabeth from King Frederick the Great of Prussia in 1741.
    27. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 99.
    28. On this day even Romanov family members could not refer to the new emperor and empress as Sasha and Minnie. The strictest formalities were observed throughout the day out of profound respect for the offices that they now held.
    29. Gelardi, Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011. p. 6
    30. Thornton, Mary Grace. “The Crowning of the Tsar: Journal of an Eye-Witness the Coronation of Alexander III,” in The Century Magazine, Vol. LII, May 1896, No. 1, p. 20.
    31. Gelardi, Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011. p. 6
    32. Thurston, Herbert. “Coronation,” Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1913.
    33. Sokholov, Archpriest Dimitri. “The Coronation- Anointing of the Tsar,” Manual of the Orthodox Church’s Divine Services. Jordanville, New York: Holy Trinity Monastery Press, 2001.
    34. Wortman, S. Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in the Russian Monarchy: From Alexander II to the Abdication of Nicholas II, Volume Two. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000, p. 220.
    35. RA/Letter from the Empress Marie to the Princess of Wales, 8 June 1883
    36. Chrism oil is made from pure olive oil and balsam, a liquid extract taken from trees of the terebinthinate grouping. The dominate component is olive oil but this alone does not meet the sacramental requirements for the creation of Chrism. A bishop must bless the sacred chrism once mixed which is then used in the most important sacraments or rituals of the church. Chrism is used in numerous churches including the Catholic, Nordic Lutheran, Anglican, Byzantine Catholic, and the various Orthodox churches.
    37. Sokholov, Archpries
    38. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 104.
    1. Her last appearance at a State Opening of Parliament was in 1886 at which event both Eddy and his Aunt Beatrice helped the aging queen up the throne’s crimson covered steps in the House of Lords.
    2. RA/AA/Charlotte Knollys, 1876
    3. Bertie met and fell for the charms of nineteen year old Mable Batten; the daughter of George Hatch, a British Raj judge-advocate for the NW Territories. She was young, fresh, and beautiful with auburn hair and hazel eyes and she performed with a mezzo-soprano voice which charmed most men who came to know her. Bertie was one such admirer and pursued her throughout his tour of India.
    4. RA/AA/Queen Victoria to the Princess of Wales, 16 February 1876
    5. RA/VIC/Add A2/19, Queen Victoria to Bertie, 19 February 1876
    6. RA/AA/Charlotte Knollys, 20 February 1876
    7. Some histories date it incorrectly as 8 February.
    8. The British monarchs would simultaneously hold the title and dignity of Emperor of India until 1948 when India gained its independence. At that time, the empire ceased to exist and the birth of the British Commonwealth of Nations took hold.
    9. L. A. Knight, “The Royal Titles Act and India,” The Historical Journal, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 11, No. 3 (1968), p. 489.
    10. Queen Victoria originally thought her title should be changed to “Empress of Great Britain, Ireland and India” but Disraeli convinced her the formal acts creating the United Kingdom (up to and including 1801) could not be laid aside. She reluctantly agreed and so remained Queen of the United Kingdom but also separately as Empress of India.
    11. RA/VIC/Add C07/1/Ponsonby: Francis Knollys to Henry Ponsonby, 7 April 1876, “Confidential Report”
    12. Although he was indeed the Emperor of India
    13. To show both the people and the government his disdain for the new title, when he did become king, Bertie signed all correspondence, laws, and royal warrants: Edward R. He did not use the addition letter “I” for imperator (emperor) as Victoria had so eagerly done.
    14. Sir William Thomas Knollys (1 August 1797 – 23 June 1883) died while on duty in the House of Lords. At the time, he was serving in the position of “Black Rod.”
    15. Francis Knollys, 1st Viscount Knollys, GCB, GCVO, KCMG, ISO, PC (16 July 1837 – 15 August 1924). After Edward VII’s death he continued in the post of Private Secretary to the King, renewed in office by George V who also elevated him to the rank of Viscount. During his long service Francis Knollys was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, the Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, the rank of Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, and the Imperial Service Order.
    16. Viscount Knollys also served as a Gentleman Usher to Queen Victoria (1868–1901) and as a Lord-in-Waiting to Queen Mary (1910–1924).
    17. Henry Knollys remained in Queen Maud’s service until retiring in 1919. For these years of faithfulness in a foreign court, he was awarded Norway’s highest honor—the Order of Saint Olav. He was likewise awarded the highest honor of the Danish Crown – the Royal Order of the Elephant. In Britain, he was recognized by grant of the award of the Royal Victorian Order in the rank of Knight Commander.
    18. Charlotte lived to age 95, dying in 1930.
    19. Eddy and George had little dealings with Charlotte when she first arrived. They grew, in time, to dislike her as did members of the Royal Household once Bertie became king in 1901.
    20. When Bertie became king he formalized Charlotte’s position by naming her Private Secretary to the Queen and with this formal office he gave her precedence at Court as a daughter of a baron with the qualification of “The Honourable” prefixed to her name. The Hon. Charlotte Knollys thus became the first female private secretary of a monarch or queen consort in history. She simultaneously remained a Lady-of-the-Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra as well after 1901.
    21. “Death of The Hon. Charlotte Knollys; an obituary.” The Times. London, 26 April, 1930.
    22. Julia P. Gelardi. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 4.
    23. The same behavior was replicated in Russia with Minnie who treated her eldest son Nicholas as a hapless boy even after becoming both the tsar and a married man. Minnie likewise treated her youngest daughter, Olga, in the same way Alix had raised Victoria – with both girls becoming their mothers’ companions rather than independent women. Likewise, Willy in Greece treated his sons as boys even after they all had attained majority and had fathered children of their own.
    24. In any regard, the Royal Archives at Windsor to this day remain closed on the subject of Prince Albert Victor (Eddy). Alix’s letters to George survived because he went on to be king and his desire to preserve his correspondence meant an eventual place for these histories in the Royal Archives.
    25. RA/AA/36/16
    26. Rev. John N. Dalton’s reward at the end of his long service to the boys was his appointment by Queen Victoria to the office of Canon of Windsor, a prestigious ecclesiastical appointment made directly by the monarch as Windsor has always been a ‘royal peculiar’ (meaning its clergy reported to, and were appointed by, the monarch not the Archbishop of Canterbury). Dalton had a thunderous ‘church voice’ and his reading of Old Testament scripture in particular carried impressive resonance. Prince George, even after 1910 as King George V, was always moved by Dalton’s readings in church. The two remained friends until death. This friendship proved most supportive of Dalton. When the office of Dean of Westminster Abbey came open, another ‘royal peculiar,’ even the king’s determination to name Dalton to the post was not enough to overcome opposition to Dalton’s appointment. George V had to relent when the priests there became openly antagonistic to the appointment. Soon after, the office of Dean of Windsor came open and George once more thought it ideal for his old friend. Again, the clergy staunchly opposed the king’s will. Dalton was overbearing, cantankerous and rude, not only to ordinary people but to his fellow clergymen and few befriended him. This side of him the royal family never saw as Dalton was careful to conceal his irritability from them. When the Very Reverend Albert Baillie was given the Windsor post, the king’s private secretary told him privately: “It is not too much to say that Dalton made your predecessor an unhappy man for a quarter of a century.” He proved so difficult at times many others sought to seek appointments elsewhere despite the prestige of being a canon of Windsor. Before he died, Dalton pledged to ‘jump up out of his coffin to spoil the show.’ He lived until 1931, age 91. His favorite pupil, George V, would survive him by only another five years.
    27. Albert Victor, Prince and Prince George, The Cruise of Her Majesty’s Ship “Bacchante”, 1879-1882, Vol. 1, p. x.
    28. In addition to their parents and the queen, the boys occasionally wrote to their Danish grandparents, to their sisters who adored them both, to Nicholas and George in Russia, and to the Greek relations.
    29. Some historians claim that these rituals began in the Spanish and Portuguese navies.
    30. Albert Victor, Prince and Prince George. The Cruise of Her Majesty’s Ship “Bacchante”, 1879-1882, Vol. 1, p. 267.
    31. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld, New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994.p. 57.
    32. Saint Mildred Whippingham was where the queen and her family worshiped when at Osborne House.
    33. When Alix saw her boys for the first time upon their return, she remarked she could not believe her little Georgie boy had grown so hairy while his older brother Eddy could not even begin to grow a hint of a man’s beard. She found the differences between her two sons to be most humorous (in a very childish sort of way).
    1. Eddy was the second of her grandchildren to receive the honor, the first being Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, Vicky’s eldest son and the future Kaiser Wilhelm II. He received the Order of the Garter from his grandmother in 1877.
    2. RA/Z/162/7
    3. RA/AA/29/35
    4. Rose, Kenneth. King George V. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984, p.17.
    5. Ibid
    6. RA/AA/29/41
    7. Bachelor’s Cottage is one of several homes within the grounds of the Sandringham Estate near King’s Lynn in Norfolk. It took its original name from the single gentlemen of Bertie’s Household who were housed there. The cottage today is known as York Cottage taking the new name as the home of King George V and Queen Mary for thirty-three years. Most of those years, the couple were known as the Duke and Duchess of York. The cottage was built by Bertie near the edge of ‘Lower Pond’ as a guest accommodation for men of his Court and later as wedding present for Georgie and May. The house was small by royal standards and poorly designed. It tended to be overheated in winter, suffocatingly hot in summer, with small cramped rooms and few bathrooms. In summer 2018 Queen Elizabeth II presented York Cottage to Prince Harry and Meghan Markle (thereafter the Duke and Duchess of Sussex) as a wedding gift for their use during their lifetimes as a get-away home when the royal family are gathered together at Sandringham.
    8. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994. p. 64.
    9. He was president of the Cambridge Union in 1882.
    10. Vincent, James. HRH Duke of Clarence and Avondale, London: John Murray, 1893, p. 21.
    11. Jim Stephen died in a lunatic asylum in 1941. Today his illness would be diagnosed as severe bi-polar personality disturbance but in those days the manic swings in his personality, especially after a fall, and injury to his head, in 1887, which labeled him a lunatic.
    12. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p. 65.
    13. Ibid
    14. Harrison, Michael. Clarence. Swindon, UK: W. H. Allen Publishers, 1972, p. 164.
    15. Archbishop Edward White Benson was believed to have been an Apostle when he, too, was at Cambridge. He married Mary Sidgwick who was believed to be a lesbian. Although they had six children together, none of whom married, nearly all suffering from bi-polar disease, she left the archbishop for Lucy Tate, the daughter of the previous Archbishop of Canterbury.
    16. Newsome, David. On the Edge of Paradise: The Diaries of A. C. Benson, London: John Mary, 1980. p. 24
    17. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld, New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p. 73.
    18. RA/ Letters of Queen Victoria/ Second Series/ Volume III/ 1885
    19. http://www.royal-menus.com/Edward VII-21st birthday-Duke-Albert-Victor (as displayed o 29 April 2017)
    20. Ibid
    21. RA/14 January 1885/Sandringham House
    22. RA /Letter from Prince Albert Victor to Prince George/ 27 December 1886.
    23. Longford, Elizabeth. The Royal House of Windsor, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974, p. 31.
    24. It has been suggested that once away from the Apostles at Cambridge Eddy had to find sexual release outside his class as word would otherwise have eventually leaked out about any dalliances within the royal circle. As such, it is believed he found release in London’s sexual underworld of prostitutes, hustlers and rent-boys. This led in time to the belief of his active participation at the Cleveland Street Brothel which in itself led to the open scandal known as the Cleveland Street Scandal of 1889.
    25. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra, Boston: Houghton and Mifflin. 1969, p. 167.
    26. Known after Irish independence as Dún Laoghaire, Kingstown sat twelve miles south of Dublin.
    27. RA/Z/455/11
    28. Although known generally as Colonel Gordon, Charles George Gordon CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885) rose to the rank of Major-General.
    29. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld, New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p. 71
    30. Ibid
    31. Ibid, p. 77.
    32. St. Aubyn, Giles. The Royal George 1819 – 1904: The Life of H.R.H. Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, Mishawaka, IN: Better World Books, 2006. p. 299
    33. Warwick, Christopher. George and Marina: Duke and Duchess of Kent, London: Albert Bridge Books, 2016, p. 53.
    34. RA/AA/31/18
    35. Sixty-two working brothels were identified in White Chapel alone in 1888 with approximately 1,200 known prostitutes active there at the same time.
    36. Five of the eleven victims were clearly murdered by the same person. Speculation remains as to who may have killed the additional six women.
    37. The archival files on Prince Albert Victor remain sealed nearly one hundred thirty years after his death, which is highly unusual and certainly a disservice to his historical importance as a onetime senior member of the royal family. Many scholars hypothesize that this is so in order to keep damaging information on his life (and possible involvement in the Cleveland Street Scandal and in the White Chapel Murders) from ever seeing the light of day. It is more reasonable to believe that what little remains on him in the archives would paint his shortcoming and foibles in an unpleasant light which officials do not wish to see happen. Had information on him been readily available, a much more reasonable presentation of his life might be possible.
    38. The mystery of who was ‘Jack the Ripper’ has never been officially solved. Many plausible theories have been put forth in the decades following the murders that took place between 1888 and 1891. Recently, Dr. Jan Louhelainen, a professor of molecular biology at Liverpool’s John Moores University claims that through the science of DNA he can state unequivocally that the killer was Polish immigrant Aaron Kosminski who was one of the original suspects and a resident of White Chapel until 1891 when he was incarcerated in an insane asylum. Dr. Louhelainen studied stains on a silk shawl that had belonged to one of the victims and found both her blood and semen imbedded on it. The shawl had been purchased at auction by businessman Russell Edwards in 2007. DNA results prove a 100% match to Aaron Kosminski. Now, although this proves that the suspect had sexual relations at some point with the victim; it does not prove beyond a doubt, however, that he also killed her. The probability is high nevertheless that he was both sexual partner and killer and thus probably ‘Jack the Ripper.’
    39. RA/VIC/journal/4 October 1888
    40. In British upper-class circles at that time, and for decades afterwards, it was simply known as The Scandal.
    41. Veck impersonated an Anglican vicar, calling himself Reverend G.D. Veck.
    42. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, as presented on 5 May 2017.
    43. Again, if the Royal Archives would open their files on the prince perhaps all these propositions could be laid to rest once and for all; as it is, with the available facts as they now are, these matters must be discussed as possible truths.
    44. He died in France in 1926.
    45. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld, New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p. 117.
    46. Ibid
    47. RA/E/August 1889
    48. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld, New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p. 127.
    49. RA/Ponsonby papers/1889
    50. Queen Victoria’s assessment of the aristocracy in general was not a good one; she saw them as a lazy, self-promoting and overly sensuous group.
    51. RA/AA/33/10
    52. Constantine was the oldest son of Alix’s brother Willy (King George I) and Olga of Greece. Sophia was the daughter of the Empress Frederick (Princess Victoria of England) thus again merging the two lines of the family—the Saxe-Coburgs and the Glucksburgs. Constantine was Alix’s nephew and Sophia was Bertie’s niece.
    1. Very few people outside of Russia applied this ancient Russian title to Minnie. She preferred the title of ‘empress’ for herself and all foreign courts referred to her as such.
    2. Van der Kiste, John. The Romanovs: 1818 – 1959. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1998, p. 110
    3. Minnie’s unbridled lavishness would come into its own after Sasha’s early death when thereafter no one in Russia would dare to order her to curb her outlandish spending,
    4. Van der Kiste, John. The Romanovs: 1818 – 1959. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1998, p. 111.
    5. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    6. Van der Kiste, John. The Romanovs: 1818 – 1959. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1998, p 113.
    7. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Gatchina/Tsar Alexander III file)
    8. The composer was so grateful to the tsar he composed a Coronation March and Cantata in his honor.
    9. Volkoff, Vladimir. Tchaikovsky: a Self-Portrait. London: Robert Hale, 1975, p. 158.
    10. Of course a state visit to Denmark was not necessary as Minnie and Sasha and their family continued to make annual private family visits there and while in Denmark, despite King Christian IX’s general ban on political discussions, Sasha was able to strengthen bonds between the two states. He and Minnie both made certain during these visits to also cement business deals between Danish companies and the Russian state that would benefit both as well. And so every private visit to Denmark always included business exchanges and political discussions all the same.
    11. Today, known as Kroměříž, a town in the Czech Republic.
    12. Olomouc, as it is now known, was a center of great culture, music and religion and in the sixteenth century many Slavs had settled there. It was Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox in makeup and each group lived in harmony with the others. As such it was an ideal venue for the meeting.
    13. Österreichisches Staatarchiv/Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Wein (Vienna): Kremsier, 1885.
    14. Ibid
    15. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    16. A treaty between Russia, Austria and Germany had first been concluded in 1873. It was known as the “League of The Three Emperors” by many and as the “League of The Three Caesars” by others (the titles Tsar and Kaiser, which Russia and both Germany and Austria used in kind for their emperors, were derivations of the title “Caesar.” This political alliance expired in 1878. It was informally renewed in 1881 but Sasha politically looked towards France and not towards Germany and so the agreement lapsed after its second term ended in 1887. Russia could not come to complaisant terms with Austria over the Balkans and this meeting at Kremsier did nothing to ease these tensions.
    17. Strangely enough, Minnie may have forgotten, or at least chose to forget, that Austria had joined Bismarck in his annexation of Schleswig and Holstein. It seems that once Prussia had also turned on Austria, the Danish family forgave it for its earlier aggression against them. Whatever the case, Minnie and Elizabeth embraced one another as a true friendship developed between them.
    18. Hall, Coryne. “Tsar Alexander III (1845-1894),” The Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Tsars Since Paul I, Arturo Beéche, editor, East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory, 2013, p. 105.
    19. Ibid
    20. Letters of Tsar Nicholas II and Empress Marie Feodorovna, Edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor, Nicholson and Watson, Limited, 1937, pp. 30-31.
    21. Hers was a prejudice similar to the American experience during the Second World War when all Japanese Americans were feared and later interred because of the surprise attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor. Neither action, neither Minnie’s in the nineteen century or America’s in the twentieth century, would be acceptable in the twenty-first century. At the time of both experiences, however, it was the fear of terrifying events that motivated both responses.
    22. Minnie’s ‘hatred’ for the nihilists and revolutionaries who were predominately Jewish by ancestry translated to hatred for ‘the Jews’ in Russia society (where anti-Semitism had always been a problem). Her feelings did not run as deep as the Russians’ hatred. Hers was akin to the way westerners today speak of Muslim extremists with great hatred and antipathy even though most people would not actually blame all believers in Islam for these crimes nor hate all Muslims. Sasha on the only hand was a true anti-Semite, and his hatred for the Jewish race grew worse after his father’s assassination. Nicholas never shared his father’s level of hatred for the Jews but he was a core anti-Semite all the same.
    23. Nicky closely resembled his cousin George of Wales, Alix’s second son. The two closely resembled one another, especially as adults, when they both adopted the van Dyke style beard which both men would wear for the rest of their lives. Courtiers in both Courts could not easily tell them apart but Nicky was clearly the better looking of the two cousins. This is probably so because they both resembled Danish relations, but George of Wales additional had the protruding Hanoverian eyes of his father and that line of ancestors which made him less attractive than Nicholas.

      George Alexandrovitch on the other hand resembled the Romanovs, at least his Uncle Paul, Sasha’s youngest brother. Paul, in turn, resembled his mother’s family, the Hessians. George Alexandrovitch, however, did have the cool blue eyes of the Danes even though Minnie’s eyes were brown.

    24. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch file, 1887)
    25. Davidson, Lisa. “Tsarevitch George Alexandrovitch (1871-1899),” The Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Tsars Since Paul I, Arturo Beéche, editor, East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory, 2013, p. 183.
    1. Long after Nicky became tsar, and George had died, he could often be heard laughing aloud when alone in his study. On these occasions he was re-reading the many jokes and stories about George that he had saved and which always made Nicholas extremely happy to reflect on.
    2. Many historians have claimed it was in admiration of his Russian uncle, Grand Duke Alexis Alexandrovitch, who served in the Russian Navy, which caused this interest to bud in George, but it was not. It was the strong bonds with the Danish family, not the Romanovs, to which George gravitated and which imbued in him an interest to serve as a naval officer when he reached adulthood.
    3. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch file, 1889)
    4. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 107
    5. Ibid
    6. Ibid
    7. 2,500 Swedish Kroner would equate to $ 302,000 in 2021, a huge sum of money for that small house in those days.
    8. These terms translate to “Emperor’s Villa” and “Emperor’s Way”.
    9. For all their Scandinavian liberal beliefs, Alix and Minnie were quite snobbish at times, particularly where newer or less important royal houses were concerned. The two sisters, as did all of the Danish royals at the time, considered the Bernadotte’s to be nothing more than French upstarts and despite Louise giving Freddy eight healthy children they could not bring themselves to warm to her. They also did not appreciate her Christian fundamentalism which they considered to be overly pious and somewhat false.
    10. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, 1999, p. 114.
    11. Most Romanovs blamed the Michaelovitchi branch of the family for Sasha’s decision to limit the grand ducal rank and corresponding stipends as this line abounded in grand dukes. Grand Duke Michael Nicholevitch, the head of this branch of the family, had fathered six sons and seven grandsons and in addition to this line of numerous young grand dukes that would receive annual payments for decades to come, all the other branches had numerous sons and grandsons as well. Sasha resented payments to so many people and he desired a much more streamlined imperial house with recognized members having closer bloodlines to the reigning tsar. All other Romanovs would be members of the imperial family but not members of the imperial house and as such would be eligible for lesser payments at birth, at marriage and annually.
    12. This annual tax-exempt payment would equate to approximately $1,005,000 in 2021 currency. This sum would be paid annually to each adult grand duke with lesser sums paid in trust to minor male dynasts. The grand duchesses received a one-time life allotment equating to $4,955,000 in 2021 currency.
    13. Ioann Constantinovitch was born a Romanov grand duke with the predicate of Imperial Highness. He was the grandson of Grand Duke Constantine Nicholevitch and the son of Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovitch. At the age of nine days, Sasha’s ukase took effect and this infant became the first Romanov to lose his automatic right to the title of grand duke and all the money which would naturally flow to him because of this rank. His new rank and title became: His Highness, Prince Ioann Constantinovitch of Russia.
    14. Alexander Mikhailovich, H.I.H. Grand Duke of Russia. Once a Grand Duke. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1932, p. 174.
    15. Alexander II had relaxed a similar existing requirement in the previous reign so that Protestant princesses marrying into the imperial family could opt, if their consciences demanded, to avert conversion. This did not apply to anyone marrying a direct heir to the throne. Imperial House Law required any possible future empress to be Orthodox. Alexander II made this adjustment because of the growing numbers of Romanovs needing brides from Protestant houses abroad and because of a growing draught of eligible princesses acceptable to existing Imperial House Laws. Alexander required his written permission for a Protestant princess to retain her faith. This personal decision was not automatic in his reign. Without a bride first becoming Orthodox, or if marriage took place without Alexander II’s expressed permission for the bride to retain her original faith, the offspring of such unions were not automatically entitled to imperial standing, rank, and funding from the Imperial Appanges Department. As such they were not automatically dynasts.

      When Grand Duke Vladimir married Marie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Miechen), she refused to accept Orthodoxy, so devoted to the Lutheran Church was she, but with Alexander II’s permission she entered the imperial family with equal standing and was able to retain her Protestant faith as long as she wished. Much later, near to the end of the dynasty, she converted to the Orthodox Church. With Sasha’s later decree in 1889, however, such permission was no longer granted and no marriage within the imperial family could take place without the bride first converting to Orthodoxy. Minnie fully supported Sasha in this decision.

      Marriages between Romanovs and princesses of Catholic houses were virtually impossible as Catholics would not surrender their faith for marriage into the imperial house. Orthodox adherents preferred Protestants to Catholics at any rate as tensions between Rome and Orthodoxy had festered for centuries

      Van der Kiste, John. Kings of the Hellenes: The Greek Kings – 1863- 1974. Dover, New Hampshire: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1994, p. 45.

    16. Bertie represented the United Kingdom. He was accompanied by his brother Alfred and Marie Alexandrovna, the duke and duchess of Edinburgh. Had they accepted the Greek throne when it was offered them, they would have been the hosts of this event, not guests attending it. Serge Alexandrovitch, Sasha’s younger brother, and his wife Ella, represented Russia. Serge was Queen Olga’s cousin.
    17. Van der Kiste, John. Kings of the Hellenes: The Greek Kings – 1863-1974. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1994 p. 46.
    18. Each of Willy and Olga’s children bore the dual title of Prince or Princess of Greece and Denmark as Willy had never abdicated his Danish titles or his rights to the succession of the Danish throne, therefore he remained to his death a member of the Danish royal family even as reigning king of Greece.
    19. Sadly, when Greece abolished the monarchy in 1973, King Constantine II and Queen Anne-Marie also lost their beloved estate at Tatoi as it was confiscated at that time by the succeeding government. Continued calls for its return were refused by subsequent governments in Athens. The king took his case to regain his family home, as every citizen has the right to do, suing the Greek government at the European Court of Human Rights for the sum of €500 million. He won a much smaller award as compensation (approximately €12 million) for his lost property but the Greek government paid this sum from the “Extraordinary Natural Disasters Fund” with the intent of causing embarrassment to the king.

      The court had no right to enforce how the money was paid to the king. Because the source of the funds used to pay him had come from funds reserved to aid Greeks in hardship, the king chose to use the payment to create the Anna Maria Foundation (named in honor of the queen) with the purpose of giving aid where natural disasters occur. Sadly, the king neither had his property returned nor had funds turned over to him which in good conscience he could accept for himself. The estate sits today unused and abused by vandals.

    20. Here at Tatoi on a southern facing slope of Mount Pranitha, Willy chose the site of the formal burial ground for his dynasty. To date, twenty members of the royal house have been laid to rest within the forest at Tatoi.
    21. Alexander Ulyanov was one such person hanged. He was one of five who had been found conspiring to kill Sasha. He was not given a reprieve despite pleas for leniency. His younger brother Vladimir would foster a hatred for the Romanovs ever-after as a result. This youth is best known by his pseudonym: Vladimir Lenin and his hatred for the monarchy after his brother’s execution would bring ruin and death to many Romanovs and would see the Russian nation changed for decades to come.
    22. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow
    1. The Grand Duchy of Hesse officially became the Grand Duchy of Hesse und bei Rhine in 1816 and remained an independent monarchy, albeit within the German Reich, until 1918. It was more commonly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, Darmstadt being its capital.
    2. RA/AA/31/16
    3. RA/AA/31/17
    4. RA/AA/31/16
    5. Except for John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, husband of Princess Louise, Queen Victoria’s fifth child, who spoke with a stiff Scottish brogue.
    6. Ernst Ludwig was the only surviving son of Princess Alice and Louis of Hesse. He succeeded his father as reigning Grand Duke in 1892.
    7. Aronson, Theo. Prince Eddy and the Homosexual Underworld. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994, p.191.
    8. Kronberg Letters, 7 May 1889.
    9. Had Alicky of Hesse married into the British Royal family she would have re-infected it with the hemophilia gene which Alicky had inherited from Queen Victoria through her daughter Alice.
    10. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 172.
    11. Ibid
    12. Rose, Kenneth. King George V. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1984, p. 20.
    13. Julie Stoner (1862 -1950) married in 1891 the French aristocrat Pierre Henri Louis Leopold Fernand, Marquis d’Hautpoul de Seyre, who upon obtaining British citizenship, was granted a royal license allowing him to use his foreign title in Great Britain. Julie was appointed a Lady-in-Waiting by Alix when still Princess of Wales and when she became queen, she elevated Julie to the office of Lady of the Bedchamber. For the remainder of her life Julie remained faithful friends with George, and later his wife Mary. In fact, she was the only commoner in the empire permitted to address them both by their Christian names. Julie traveled with them and served in the Royal Household until well into the reign of George VI. In every way she and Harry were considered a part of the royal family. Harry served Queen Victoria, Edward VII, George V and George VI as equerry. When George V died in 1936, a large wreath of deep red roses stood prominently by the king’s catafalque. It bore the words: ‘From your broken-hearted Julie’. Amongst the personal items found on the king’s desk after his death was a Fabergé frame with the image of a young Julie inside it.
    14. From the private diaries of George V.
    15. The Marlborough Club survived as an independent establishment from 1868 until 1945 when declining membership, and lack of new suitable candidates, caused the executive committee to vote to merge with the Windom and the Orleans clubs. Even after this drastic step, the combined club only survived until 1953.
    16. The titular honor of “Princess Royal” is granted to the eldest daughter of the monarch. There may only be one Princess Royal at a time and at that time Queen Victoria’s oldest daughter Vicky held this special honor. She was married to the Crown Prince of Prussia who reigned as monarch for only ninety-nine days as Kaiser Frederick III, dying of throat cancer in 1888. During her husband’s brief reign as both King of Prussia and German Emperor, Vicky was known as the Empress Viktoria but in widowhood, in an attempt to honor her beloved late husband cut down far too young, she chose to be called by the title “Empress Frederick”. It is by this title that she has entered history. The current Princess Royal is The Princess Anne, only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II.
    17. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 20.
    18. In time Victoria Mary would become the queen’s grandson’s wife; known to the world as Queen Mary.
    19. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 20.
    20. Princess Louise (herself)
    21. Princess Victoria
    22. Princess Maud.
    23. St. Aubyn, Giles. Edward VII, Prince and King, New York: Harper Collins, 1979, p.103.
    24. She would have similar trouble accepting May Teck for George as she thought her too German, even though Mary Adelaide had been her best friend within the royal family and a part of Alix’s childhood days at Rumppenheim.
    25. Van der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children, London: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1989, p. 41.
    26. Once he inherited the earldom, Fife (as Duff became known) also came into ownership of 100,000 acres of land in Scotland and with it fourteen country homes along with two proper city residences – one in London and the other in Edinburgh.
    27. RA/146/33
    28. RA/Letters of Queen Victoria/27 June 1889
    29. Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz/Prussian Privy State Archives, Berlin, Wilhelm II, July 1898
    30. RA/ Letters of Queen Victoria, 28 June 1889.
    31. In 1900 Queen Victoria issued new Lettres Patent recreating both titles once more so that Fife could be succeeded by his eldest daughter as the Fife’s only son was stillborn.
    32. They would have three children together: Alastair who was stillborn in 1890; Alexandra, named for her grandmother, born in 1891; and Maud in 1893.
    33. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Chalford, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2008. p. 215.
    34. By marriage to Albert of Saxe-Coburg, their descendants thereafter bore the family and house name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, not Hanover.
    35. Although Victoria felt deeply that foreign affairs and family matters, such as marriages, were entirely in her purview, she had to defer in the end to what her ministers determined to be the best course for the nation.
    36. RA/AA/31/18
    37. RA/ correspondence from Prince Albert Victor to George V/AA/39/62
    38. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 181
    39. Ibid
    40. RA/AA/31/16
    41. The baby was stillborn on 16 June 1890
    42. Roberts, Cecil. Alfred Fripp, London: Hutchinson, 1932, p. 46.
    43. Ibid
    44. RA/AA/31/36
    45. Vatican Secret Archives (ASV), Fondo Moderno: Estero Titulo IX, Affari Esteri, Rubriche №244: Lettere di Sua Santità-Leone XIII
    46. RA/VIC/33/71
    47. RA/AA/31/16
    1. Lees-Milne, James. The Enigmatic Edwardian, London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1986, p.82
    2. RA/Salisbury papers/1890-91
    3. Hèléne was later considered a candidate for the hand of Nicholas Alexandrovitch but Minnie thought this unwise as it would cause difficulties with her sister and the British family after so unhappy an ending with Eddy. Catholicism for the Romanovs was also a problem even though they would have insisted on her conversion to Orthodoxy. Hèléne was next considered as a possible bride for the Prince of Naples, Crown Prince of Italy, but in the end she married his cousin, the Duke of Aosta. She never wore a crown.
    4. As the Royal Archives remain firmly closed on the files pertaining to Prince Albert Victor, we do not yet know if these letters existed, if payment was made to secure them, and/or if he indeed had any involvement with these women but as he is believed to have suffered a bad case of gonorrhea, he may very well have been infected by one of them if not from others.
    5. RA/Queen Victoria’s diaries, June/1891
    6. The last time a Prince of Wales had to present testimony in court was in 1411.
    7. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Chalford, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2008, p. 244.
    8. Bertie vindictively led society’s ostracism of Gordon-Cumming and he also went so far as to exclude from his own social circle anyone who received or befriended Sir William after the trial.
    9. Bertie was so addicted to the game of baccarat he had a room at Sandringham outfitted like one of the gaming salons at the Casino de Monte Carlo and thereafter illegal gaming routinely took place within the walls of the country home of the heir to the throne.
    10. RA/Z/475/18
    11. Frances Evelyn “Daisy” Greville, the Countess of Warwick (10 December 1861 – 26 July 1938) was all but the official mistress of the Prince of Wales from 1886 until 1898.
    12. Eddy, in particular, and the royal family in general, tended to make payment on invoices received many months after services had been rendered. This was more the protective practice of their comptrollers than it was stinginess on the part of individual royal family members.
    13. RA/L/4/18
    14. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Chalford, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2008, p. 247.
    15. Pope-Hennessy, James. Queen Mary. London: Allen and Unwin, 1959, p. 190.
    16. Ibid, p. 194
    17. Ibid
    18. RA/Z/55/73
    19. Roberts, Cecil. Alfred Fripp. London: Hutchinson, 1932, p. 60.
    20. Ibid, p. 58
    21. Ibid, p. 33
    22. Ibid
    23. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 27.
    24. Lady Sybil-St. Clair-Erskine was the daughter of the 4th Earl of Rosslyn and evidence exists that Eddy was trying to court her despite prohibitions upon him on marrying a subject. Eddy wrote many touching letters to her, all of which she kept in her possession despite Eddy asking her to cut off his crowned cipher from each letter lest they fall into the wrong hands. Eddy continued to write to her, more erratically each time, until he learned of her engagement to Anthony Mildmay Julian Fane, 13th Earl of Westmorland.
    25. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 28.
    26. Roberts, Cecil. Alfred Fripp. London: Hutchinson, 1932, p. 47.
    27. Fripp went on to marry after Eddy’s death. He chose as his bride Margaret Scott Haywood (1880-1965). Together they had five children. Fripp served in the British Medical Corps during the Boer War and also later during World War I as well. He died in February 1930 after a bout of nephritis.
    28. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 28.
    29. Ibid, p. 30
    30. This same strong character and commitment to duty has been passed onto the present queen, Elizabeth II, who in many ways resembles her grandmother May of Teck (a.k.a. Queen Mary).
    31. Letters from Queen Victoria to the Empress Frederick, Kronberg Archives, 17 November 1891.
    32. Luton Hoo was then the home of the Danish minister to the Court of Saint James and his English wife, Ambassador and Mrs. Christian de Falbe, who were also friends of Alix and Bertie.
    33. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 38.
    34. RA/Z/475/49
    35. Ibid
    36. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 45.
    37. Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein would never marry.
    38. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 49.
    39. The imperial palace at Livadia in the Crimea was not at this time the beautiful white limestone, Italianate palace of Nicholas and Alexandra’s era. The Livadia Palace at this time was made of wood. It was moldy and infected with mildew and only the gardens and vistas really enchanted visitors.
    40. RA/Ponsonby papers/19 December 1891
    41. Longford, Elizabeth. Queen Victoria: Born to Succeed, New York: Harper and Row, 1964, p. 515.
    42. RA/Z/450/148
    43. Ibid
    44. Longford, Elizabeth. Queen Victoria: Born to Succeed, New York: Harper and Row, 1964, p. 515.
    45. If indeed the prince had been a regular visitor to the Cleveland Street brothel this behavior in itself would very much fall into a criminal classification today, and rightly so, as the male prostitutes there were mainly teenage boys.
    46. Augusta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (19 July 1822 – 5 December 1916) was the elder sister of ‘Fat Mary’ and the daughter of the Duke of Cambridge; thus, she was also a granddaughter of King George III. She was a first cousin to Queen Victoria and although she lived in Germany for seventy-three years after her marriage she never ceased being a thoroughly British princess. When she lay near death at age 94 in 1916, her adopted country then at war with her beloved homeland, she sent word through neutral Sweden to her cousin King George V saying: Tell the king that it is a proud, devoted old British heart that ceases to beat. Augusta and May were very close and it was Augusta after ‘Fat Mary’s’ death who took on the mother’s role in May’s life. Augusta spent every summer in London where she maintained a home and so although the spouse of a German monarch for many decades, she remained English to her core. She desperately wanted to see her beloved May on the throne of her homeland.
    47. Great Tom is the hour bell in the South West Tower of St Paul’s Cathedral, London
    48. RA/Letters of Queen Victoria/16 January 1892
    49. RA/Z/95/5
    50. A standard is the heraldic banner of a person who has been awarded a coat of arms. Members of the British royal family bear the coat of arms of the monarch as their standard with a specific mark of difference on it to distinguish it from all others. It was this heraldic flag which draped Eddy’s casket from the day of his death until his subsequent burial at Windsor.
    51. Cook, Andrew. Prince Eddy: The King Britain Never Had. Chalford, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2008, p. 273
    52. “For over one hundred years, Wolferton was probably the most famous rural station in the land, Kings and Queens, Emperors and Empresses and all the high society of the day disembarked here. Nothing could equal the pomp and ceremony which the Station saw on the occasion of a State Visit by a foreign monarch when the drive would be ablaze with scarlet uniforms and aloud with music of military bands. Through the Station’s oak-paneled hall walked the great and powerful, from Queen Victoria and all the Royal Families, up to our present Queen and Prince of Wales, as well as the crowned heads of Europe, statesmen and countless notabilities, including the Russian Royal Family.” (Citation: http://www.wolfertonroyalstation.co.uk).
    53. This is the same alcove where the recently widowed Queen Victoria viewed Bertie and Alix’s wedding in March 1863
    54. At her doctors’ orders, the queen remained behind at Osborne where she had traveled after Eddy’s death to grieve in some privacy. When Alix insisted on attending her son’s funeral, the queen’s doctors convinced her to stay away for her own good.
    55. Princes Adolphus, Francis, and Alexander
    56. Longford, Elizabeth. Louisa, Lady in Waiting, London: Jonathan Cape, Ltd, p. 78.
    57. This pew, or box, was named after the Zenana, the name for the most luxurious setting for princesses in India during the British Raj.
    58. RA/Edward VII/ 21 January 1892.
    59. Queens Charlotte and Adelaide joined their respective spouses here in death as well.
    60. In addition to Eddy, Queen Victoria’s fourth and youngest son, Prince Leopold George Duncan Albert, Duke of Albany, KG, KT, GCSI, GCMG, GCStJ (7 April 1853 – 28 March 1884) was also buried in the Albert Memorial Chapel after his death. He suffered from hemophilia and died after a fall in Cannes.
    61. https://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/69402/modelnbspfor-the-tomb-of-the-duke-of-clarence
    62. Helene d’Orleans had not yet married when Eddy died. She would not do so until 1895. Eddy would always be the true love of her life. After their failed engagement, conjecture rose that she would marry Minnie’s son Nicky, but religion was once more cited as reason enough to cancel any hopes for such a marriage (although it was more a desire not to cause hurt feelings with the British after the earlier failed engagement there). In 1895 she married the head of the cadet branch of the Italian royal house, the Duke of Aosta and after his death in 1931 she was married for a second time to an Italian commoner.
3

Book Three – Widowhood, War, Revolution and Exile

    1. Gelardi. Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 128.
    2. Pushkin’s maternal grandfather was born a native of Cameroon. He was kidnapped and sent as a slave to the Ottoman emperor who years later ‘made a gift of him’ to Peter the Great. Peter liked him and sent him to France to learn civil and military engineering. He rose to the rank of general and despite his African birth he married into Russian society. Pushkin descended from this man’s daughter and Sophie was therefore his great-granddaughter. The Romanovs were socially accepting of this mixed race family but not to the extent one of them could marry into the imperial house.
    3. Narishkin-Kurakin, Elizabeth. Under Three Tsars: A Memoir of the Lady-in-Waiting, Elizabeth Narishkin-Kurakin, edited by René Fülöp-Miller; translated by Julia E. Loesser. New York: E.F. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1931, p.129.
    4. Sergei Witte. The Memoirs of Count Witte, translated and edited by Abraham Yarmolinsky. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1921, p. 40.
    5. Ibid, p. 39.
    6. Gelardi. Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 128
    7. 100,000 rubles in 1887 equals $1,450,000 in 2021. None of the imperial family paid tax to the Russian state on this income.
    8. Wherever Sasha could, he passed some of the costs of the Imperial Court on to other budgets. Even the salaries, housing, clothing and food allowances for his children’s governesses, tutors, and nurses were prorated from the state incomes given to each of his children so in the end the children paid for their own upbringing. This custom was adopted by Nicholas II when he succeeded Sasha; he prorated his own children’s trusts for the cost of their upkeep and upbringing.
    9. Princess Zinaida Nicholaievna Yusupova (2 September 1861 – 24 November 1939) was the sole heiress of Russia’s largest private fortune. It was so vast no one in the family knew quite how extensive were their holdings or how vast was their fortune or, indeed, how many palaces they actually owned. Zinaida was famed for her beauty and the extent of her entertaining. Her exotic son Felix would one day marry Minnie’s granddaughter and in December 1916 he would be one of the murderers of Rasputin.
    10. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    11. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file)
    12. From the diary of the Countess Tania Obolensky, Lady-in-Waiting to Empress Marie Feodorovna.
    13. Ibid
    14. Ibid
    15. In Russia this post was known as “Mistress of the Imperial Court.”
    16. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovitch file)
    17. Ibid
    18. Gelardi. Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, p. 125.
    19. Although the Vladimirs would never cease proposing themselves as rivals to Sasha and Minnie, they never again disobeyed or openly offended the tsar. This is not to say they did not push themselves and their children to achieve much more than their position entitled them to, but open rivalry and any open disrespect for the tsar and his consort ended with this entanglement.
    1. RA/AA/March 1887
    2. Diaries of the Empress Marie Feodorovna, 1885
    3. Long periods under Martial Law existed in Russia from time to time, such as after Alexander II’s murder, but limited freedoms eventually were granted again only to be restricted in time, but from this day forward Sasha’s Russia was ruled with an iron fist by the military aided by the Okhrana.
    4. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Tsar Alexander III file, 1888)
    5. Ibid
    6. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Tsar Alexander III file, 1888)
    7. Ibid
    8. Kursk would become the site of the largest tank battle in history during World War II.
    9. The best English translation would be “Father Tsar” which epitomized the filial love of the people for the patriarchal emperor.
    10. Today known as: Kharkiv Oblast.
    11. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    12. Ibid
    13. Ibid
    14. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file)
    15. A giant cathedral was erected at Borki, despite there only being 2,500 inhabitants at the time, to commemorate the miraculous rescue of the imperial family. This church was later destroyed in a battle during World War II. Icons were also commissioned and distributed by the Holy Synod. All of this was the work of Pobedonostsev who would have canonized the family had they died in the crash.
    16. Witte was already well known to the tsar as it was he who planned all of the train journeys for the imperial family as the manager of the Russian train network. He came from old Baltic noble stock, his paternal line from Dutch settlers who had converted to Russian Orthodoxy upon arriving in Russia. Through his mother he was closely related to the Dolgoruky family. Under Sasha’s son Nicholas II, Witte would rise to the highest office in the land. He was a staunch monarchist but was neither conservative nor liberal in his politics.
    17. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file)
    18. Although at this time the Grand Duchess Vladimir (Marie Pavlovna or Miechen) had not yet converted to Russian Orthodoxy, and as such would be ineligible to become the empress-consort had Sasha, Minnie and all their children perished in the Borki crash, this would not have precluded Vladimir from succeeding to the throne. Without conversion Miechen would not have been able to assume the title and office of empress as a non-believer.
    19. Ian Vorres. The Last Grand Duchess, Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2001, p.54.
    20. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, p. 33 – 35.
    21. Elizabeth Feodorovna was known exclusively in European royal circles as Ella. Queen Victoria and the British family only referred to her as such. In Russia some of the Romanovs also called her by this name while others took to calling her by the endearing name given her by Serge at the time of their marriage: Tatinka.
    22. There is no evidence that their marriage was ever consummated. Ella submitted to her husband’s demanding ways, including his intentional humiliation of her in public. Serge was the most hated of the Romanovs. He was brutal and highly bigoted. Of all the grand dukes, Serge was the most anti-Semitic, the most anti-Catholic and the most brutal in his military commands. Serge routinely surrounded himself with handsome young cadets who worshiped him but otherwise he was generally despised.

      Serge Alexandrovitch was blown to bits like his father before him; killed by the nihilists as he exited the Kremlin in Moscow where he served as military governor. Upon hearing the explosion, Elizabeth Feodorovna rushed to the scene on foot to find nothing left of her husband except bits of blood and flesh here and there scattered across the snow. Whereas his father, Tsar Alexander II, had died from a bomb blast that blew away his lower extremities, the nihilist so hated Serge that the bomb used to kill him was built to intentionally kill at least one hundred men. As such only one finger with the jeweled ring which he typically wore was found on a rooftop near to where the blast occurred. Everything else which had not been vaporized in the blast was now mere unrecognizable bloody flesh mounds. Ella had all the bits and pieces gathered and placed in his regimental uniform’s greatcoat, this coat was then placed within a casket, and the casket placed in a nearby church for veneration until his remains could be buried. Ella converted to Orthodoxy and eventually founded a nursing order of nuns known as the Sisters of Martha and Mary using her own money, appanages income, and proceeds from the sale of her jewelry and property to build a motherhouse convent for her new order. Ella was murdered by the Bolsheviks during the revolution.

    23. Fulford, Roger. Beloved Mama: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess, 1878-1885. London: M. Evans and Company, 1981, pp. 152-153.
    24. Alice and Louis had six children together before Alice’s early death from diphtheria in December 1878. Of these six children two died young – Marie, the youngest died in the same diphtheria outbreak that killed her mother and Friedrich who, at age two, died after a fall from a second floor window. He was a sufferer from Hemophilia and the impact of the fall caused bleeding that soon-after claimed his life. Alice and Louis’ surviving children were: Victoria who married a distant cousin, Prince Louis of Battenberg, and who settled in England where Louis established himself in an illustrious naval career; Ella who married Serge of Russia and was thereafter known as Elizabeth Feodorovna; Irene who married her first cousin Prince Henry of Prussia (son of the Princess Royal, Crown Princess (later Empress) Victoria of Germany); Ernst Ludwig, known in the family as Ernie, the sole surviving son and the heir to his father’s grand duchy, and Alicky who in time would marry Nicky after first refusing her English cousin Albert Victor (Eddy) of Wales.
    25. Sasha stood six feet, four inches while Nicky as a fully grown man never grew taller than five feet, seven issues.
    26. Sandro, as Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovitch was known in the family, was not only Nicky’s best friend (after George), but he also would become Nicky’s brother-in-law when Sandro married Xenia in 1894.
    27. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, pp.35-38
    1. George had fallen in love with Marie of Edinburgh when he was stationed at Malta. His Uncle Alfred was military commander in residence there and a room was always kept at the ready at the Palace of San’Anton for his nephew George of Wales. The young prince was enchanted by all of the Edinburgh daughters, but his heart had been won by Marie.
    2. May was grieving the loss of her anticipated position, not Eddy, whom she neither loved nor understood.
    3. Ponsonby, Arthur. Henry Ponsonby: Queen Victoria’s Private Secretary: His Life From His Letters. New York: Macmillan, 1943, p. 45.
    4. King, Greg. Twilight of Splendor, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, p. 143.
    5. Ibid
    6. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 81.
    7. Ibid
    8. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 79.
    9. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie; Edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, Limited, 1937, pp. 70-73.
    10. The Tecks owned two tiaras. Both have passed into the current royal family by way of May’s inheritance from her mother. She in turn left them to her granddaughter the present queen. The most prominent of these is the ‘Crescent Tiara’ which although lovely has not been seen in public for several decades. In 2015, it was suggested in the British press that the Teck Crescent Tiara should be passed on to the new Duchess of Cambridge.
    11. Also known as “Dolly”
    12. Mary Adelaide never lived to see her daughter crowned queen. She died at White Lodge following an emergency operation on 27 October 1897. Two weeks prior, she underwent surgery to remove kidney stones and then immediately insisted on participating in the Diamond Jubilee processions and numerous celebrations at Buckingham Palace including a garden party. She also attended the Duchess of Devonshire’s famous fancy dress period ball despite her weakened state. By 23 October she had once more taken to her sick bed. May hurried to White Lodge to be near her mother. Her doctors suggested a malignancy and another surgery quickly was proposed. Mary Adelaide did not survive the procedure.

      As a male-line granddaughter of a king with the appellation of Royal Highness she was entitled to a funeral service at Saint George’s Chapel, Windsor. The queen attended and Alix stood beside the coffin throughout the brief service. She was visibly moved by her friend’s death. Fat Mary’s remains were laid in the royal burial vault beneath the chapel and were permitted to remain there when the new royal burial ground at Frogmore was created in 1928. By this time her daughter May was Queen Mary, the consort of George V, and as such she had the power to keep the remains of her beloved mother inside the more prestigious royal burial vault. When the new graveyard at Frogmore was consecrated numerous deceased members of the royal family, however, including those of Prince Frank of Teck, were removed from the vault and transferred to graves created for them at the new site.

    13. The bridal couple had already left by train for their honeymoon at the newly re-christened “York Cottage.”
    14. Augusta was the daughter of the queen’s uncle, the Duke of Cambridge, and thus Victoria’s first cousin and was also, therefore, a granddaughter of George III. Fat Mary was her younger sister and so Augusta was also simultaneously a maternal aunt to May of Teck. Augusta owned a prestigious diamond and pearl drop diadem which May greatly admired. Once married and with an income of her own she had the tiara copied. When Queen Mary died she passed it on to her granddaughter, the current queen, who lent it to Diana, Princess of Wales after her marriage to Prince Charles. It is the tiara most identified with Princess Diana. Today it is worn by the Duchess of Cambridge on state occasions.
    15. Longford, Elizabeth. Queen Victoria: Born to Succeed, New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1964, p. 522.
    16. This sum equates in 2021 to approximately $8,423,000
    17. RA/VIC/journal/6 July 1893.
    18. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 86.
    19. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 199.
    20. Edwards, Anne. Matriarch, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1984, p. 86.
    21. Like his grandfather before him, this child would come to be known for his long tenure as a very rakish Prince of Wales before eventually becoming King Edward VIII. After his abdication in 1936 he became the Duke of Windsor. He was always known within the family as David.
    22. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie, Edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, Limited, 1937, p 84.
    1. George was named Duke of York in 1892 following the death of his brother Eddy. It was the first time since the Hanoverians had come to the British throne with King George I the title was not granted as a dual dukedom, York and Albany. Queen Victoria had earlier granted the title of duke of Albany to her fourth son, Prince Leopold, in 1881. George held the title of HRH the Duke of York from 1892 until his father’s death in 1910 although from Victoria’s death in January 1901 until November of that same year he bore the dual title of Duke of Cornwall and York (the Cornwall title being inherited as heir to the throne immediately upon his grandmother’s death). From 9 November 1901 until 1910 he was known by the higher dignity of Prince of Wales but all of these other titles remained George’s own until he mounted the throne in 1910 at which time they were all reabsorbed into the crown.
    2. “Frankly Speaking,” Adrian Woodhouse, Majesty Magazine archives (date not cited).
    3. He stood 6 feet–4 inches tall as an adult. The average height of white European men born in 1870 was 5 feet – 5 inches. Frank Teck stood eleven inches taller than the average male at that time and had a soldier’s physique.
    4. Frankly Speaking,” Adrian Woodhouse, Majesty Magazine archives (date not cited).
    5. Of course, Mary Adelaide did become mother-in-law to Prince George in the end and as such she is the great-grandmother of the present queen: Elizabeth II.
    6. Endogamy is the practice of restricting marriages and breeding within one class, rank or religion such as the manner of royal marriages currently.
    7. Frank never married. He went on to a long term liaison with the Countess of Kilmorey who already had three grown children. Like so many of these aristocratic marriages in the Victorian Age, Ellen Kilmorey’s husband, the 3rd Earl of Kilmorey, conveniently looked the other way so that Ellen and Frank could indulge their love. She was twelve years Frank’s senior. Frank also had many one night stands, one which produced a male child who would become, in time, the grandfather of the British actress Sarah Miles. Prince Francis of Teck died of post-oper99ative blood poisoning on 22 October 1910.
    8. King, Greg. Twilight of Splendor, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007, p. 146.
    9. RA- Denmark (correspondence to Frederick VIII from the Prince of Wales, 1895)
    10. He was always known as Charles within the English family.
    11. Even though she was the wife of the heir to the throne, Alix did not yet possess a grand cross class of any of the British orders of chivalry. When state occasions called for such honors being worn, she typically selected the Russian Order of St. Catherine which Sasha had awarded her when he became tsar because she admired the insignia and the color of the ribbon.
    12. http://www.thecourtjeweller.com/2014/06/queen-alexandras-wedding-gift-tiara.html
    13. The Romanov jewels were unequaled, and Minnie wore them with great dignity but despite this, when Alix wore all the jewels in her collection, her personal dignity and distinct beauty elevated her to unrivaled status. Alix’s ‘fleur de lys’ tiara, known incorrectly through the years as the Rundell and Bridge tiara (as it was long-believed this firm had created it) was more accurately the Garrard tiara (after the firm which actually did design and execute it). At any rate, Alix referred to it as her ‘fleur de lys’ tiara and as her ‘wedding tiara’. She died intestate but her jewels were carefully earmarked for particular family members. The wedding parure was broken up at her death—the necklace, brooch and earrings were inherited by Alix’s son George whose wife Queen Mary wore them often. Queen Mary passed these on to her own daughter-in-law (later known as the Queen Mother) who wore the necklace more often than any other until her death in 2002. She, in turn, passed these pieces on to her daughter, the current queen, in whose collection they now remain. The tiara, however, was bequeathed to Alix’s daughter, Victoria, who never wore it in public. Before her death in 1935, she quietly sold off the piece, and as of 2019 it has not yet emerged in public. It is suspected the tiara had been broken up with the stones sold off individually.
    14. Abdul Karim was an Indian attendant of Queen Victoria who was known by the title – “The Munshi”— meaning “teacher” in Persian. This title was commonly applied to teachers and secretaries and for this reason Queen Victoria bestowed it unofficially upon Karim who was greatly resented and disliked for his arrogance by officials of her Court and Household and by many in the late queen’s own family.
    15. Times of London, 23 July 1896.
    16. King, Greg. Twilight of Splendor, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007, p. 149.
    17. Bjaaland, Patricia C. The Norwegian Royal Family, Oslo: Tanno Books, 1986, p. 14.
    18. Van der Kiste, John. Northern Crowns, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1996, p. 30.
    19. One child was born of this union, Prince Alexander, who was born at Sandringham on 2 July 1903. His name would later be changed to Olav when Carl and Maud accepted the Norwegian crown as King Haakon VII and Queen Maud in 1905. Their son would rule in Norway as King Olav V from 1957-1991.
    20. Rose, Kenneth. Who’s Who in the Royal House of Windsor. New York: Crescent Books, p. 276.
    21. Ibid
    22. Although the Princess of Wales was nearly universally loved in Britain, she did have detractors. These tended to be courtiers and friends of Bertie who preferred his fun loving mistress de jour to his more serene, mundane wife. Those that preferred German alliances also resented her staunch anti-German sentiments and thus became vocal detractors whenever she spoke out publicly against the kaiser and his policies.
    23. Henry Poole and Company, 15 Savile Row, London. The company’s ledgers show the last item personally commissioned from them by Christian IX was in 1901 when he came to London after Bertie had succeeded as King Edward VII.
    24. When King Christian IX died in 1906, thirty-two new suits made on Savile Row were found hanging in his wardrobe. They had never been worn.
    25. Van der Kiste, John. Northern Crowns, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1996, p. 32.
    26. Ibid
    27. Queen Louise instituted many new charities in Denmark during her thirty-five years as queen consort. Her charitable works became the impetus behind future laws later passed in Denmark introducing retirement pensions, unemployment assistance, and tax relief for indigent families. Many claim her charitable works instilled in Denmark a sense of the necessity for all Danes to show concern, care, and to take social action for, others in need which is today the hallmark of the modern Danish state.
    28. Van der Kiste, John. Northern Crowns, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1996, p. 26.
    29. RA-Denmark (Christian IX file, 1898)
    30. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns, New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 186.
    31. Loo is a card game in which forfeits are paid into a pool (www.dictionary.com); Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game which was widely played in the 18th and 19th centuries (www.wikipedia.org).
    32. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns, New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 268.
    33. Ibid, pp. 269-270
    34. Very few annual photographic portraits of the family group at Fredensborg include Thyra, Ernst August or any of their Hanover children. It was not until King Christian had been widowed, and until after her own children had grown, and once Ernst August became preoccupied with court business, that Thyra is once again regularly depicted in group photographs.
    35. After his father’s death in Paris in 1878, Ernst August of Hanover (who until this time had been known as the Crown Prince of the (defunct) kingdom of Hanover) proclaimed himself duke of Cumberland. Ernst August did not wish to openly assume the title of king of Hanover while the kingdom was still suppressed by Prussia, and so he assumed the British titles of his late grandfather who was the last to be known by them. HRH the Duke of Cumberland and of Teviotdale, Earl of Armagh as Ernst August became in 1878 linked himself closely to Great Britain by taking titles awarded to his branch of the family by King George III.
    36. One of the sons eventually born to her would marry a sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
    37. Hanover’s George V was also known as the ‘Blind King of Hanover’ because as a boy he had lost sight in both eyes; one eye by illness in 1828, and in the other by accident in 1833.
    38. George was an auto enthusiast and liked speed. When his uncle, Frederick VIII, died suddenly in 1912 while visiting Hamburg, George drove north through Germany to attend the funeral in Copenhagen. Enroute there, he crashed his car and was killed.
    39. Ernst August’s engagement to Victoria of Prussia once again united the two families—Great Britain and Denmark. Victoria was the great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria through her eldest daughter Vicky. Kaiser Wilhelm II was her son and it was his daughter Victoria who now married the scion of the House of Guelph. A great deal of diplomacy was necessary for both families to finally permit the marriage to take place. Thyra and Erni had to swallow a great deal of dynastic pride and decades of hatred towards the Hohenzollerns. The young couple met by way of sadness. When his older brother George died in the car crash, Kaiser Wilhelm sent a message of sincere condolences to the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland. It was the first social contact between the two royal houses in fifty years. Wilhelm also dispatched his adult sons to the chapel where the dead prince’s body awaited transferal home to Gmunden. The Prussian princes formed an impressive honor guard in full dress uniform. The kaiser also had George’s body placed on the imperial train and the transferal was accorded every honor due princes of Prussia. Such kind acts required a formal display of the Cumberland’s gratitude and so, soon-after they dispatched their youngest child, now Erni’s heir, to Potsdam where he not only impressed both the kaiser and his wife but also their only daughter Princess Victoria. Loved blossomed and soon after an engagement ensued. Negotiations for the marriage contract were difficult and both sides had to relinquish positions which had divided them for half a century. In the end the wedding of the kaiser’s only daughter to the heir of another (non-reigning) royal house, was celebrated with imperial style in Berlin. It would be the last great royal gathering before World War I.
    40. One child, Olga, who was named for her mother, died at birth.
    41. Helen of Greece and Denmark made a loveless marriage to Crown Prince (later king) Carol of Rumania, the son of Marie of Edinburgh, and thus a great-grandson of Queen Victoria and a grandson of Maria Alexandrovna and Alfred of Edinburgh. She never had the opportunity to be queen-consort of Rumania as Carol deserted her for another woman. Their son Michael went on to succeed to the throne and in time he proclaimed Helen Queen Mother of Romania. The current Rumanian royal family descends through her.
    42. This one-time sum equates in 2021 to $5,350,000.
    43. £ 15,000 in 1889 equates in 2021 to approximately $745,000. The annual sum of £ 4,000 equates in 2021 to $205,000. In Athens in the late nineteenth century these sums were staggering; Sophie wanted for nothing that money could not buy.
    44. Francois Blanc had built and owned the casinos in Monte Carlo and Baden. He was immensely rich and this patrimony passed to his granddaughter Marie. She did not initially know about the relationship between Waldemar of Denmark and her future husband but came to accept it, as did Waldemar’s wife Marie d’Orleans. So too did both families and when large gatherings were photographed, typically the two men stood side-by-side rather than near to their wives. Marie of Greece was a great friend and devotee of Sigmund Freud and was an early proponent of psychoanalysis. She grew up in Paris in one of the most beautiful hôtel particulier in the city. Today this palatial mansion, still as beautiful as it was when Marie’s family owned it, is now the Shangri-La Hotel at 10, Avenue d’Iéna.
    45. Her parents and husband always called her Aline. The wider family called her ‘Greek Alix’.
    46. Just as Tsar Alexander II had in the previous generation demanded Queen Victoria accord his daughter Maria Alexandrovna the rank of Imperial and Royal Highness, so too now did Vladimir and Miechen make similar demands for their daughter as she married into the Greek royal house. As such, after her marriage Elena Vladimirovna became Her Imperial and Royal Highness Princess Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia.
    47. Sasha and Minnie’s wedding present to the couple was the cost to build a suitable palace in Athens in which they would live as a married couple. The residence, much more a large mansion than a palace, was christened “the Nicholas Palace.” Today it serves as the Italian embassy.
    48. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovitch file 1902)
    49. Marie was so pro-French in her sensibilities that she hung the largest tri-colour available in her main salon.
    50. Four days later his cousin King Christian X granted Aage the rank and title of His Highness, Prince Aage, Count of Rosenborg. He would return to his native Denmark, enter its army, and rise to the rank of captain. He served with distinction in both World Wars. He was the first of the Danish princes to marry morganatically and be granted the title of ‘Count of Rosenborg.’ He died in Morocco.
    51. Ingeborg would give birth to two princesses who would make prestigious marriages— Astrid who would become Queen of Belgium as the wife of Leopold III, and Martha who would marry Crown Prince Olav of Norway. Martha would die before becoming queen. Her son with Olav V would become King Harold V.
    1. Sophie was the seventh child and third daughter of the Princess Royal and Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia. Sophie was thus a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
    2. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, pp.39- 41
    3. Davidson, Lisa. “Tsarevitch George Alexandrovitch (1871-1899)” The Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Tsars since Paul I, edited by Arturo E. Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory.com Publishers, 2010, p. 185.
    4. Hall, Coryne. Imperial Dancer: Matilde Kschessinska and the Romanovs, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, Ltd, 2005, p. 19.
    5. Royalty at this time did not date or enter into casual liaisons. They subjected themselves to arranged marriages hoping theirs would be successfully happy. And so when princes wanted to engage in sexual adventures, they did so by taking a long-term mistress often buying her a home, expensive clothes and jewels as well as many other necessary accoutrements.
    6. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor, Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, p. 46.
    7. Davidson, Lisa. “Tsarevitch George Alexandrovitch (1871-1899)”, The Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Tsars since Paul I, edited by Arturo E. Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory.com Publishers, 2010 p.185.
    8. Bombay is of course today known as Mumbai.
    9. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor, Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, pp.43-45.
    10. Davidson, Lisa. “Tsarevitch George Alexandrovitch (1871-1899)”, The Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Tsars since Paul I, edited by Arturo E. Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory.com Publishers, 2010 p.186.
    11. Today the town is known as Abastumani and stands in the far northeast corner of the independent Republic of Georgia.
    12. Diaries of the Empress Marie Feodorovna (1891)
    13. Davidson, Lisa. “Tsarevitch George Alexandrovitch (1871-1899)”, The Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Tsars since Paul I, edited by Arturo E. Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory.com Publishers,2010, p.187.
    14. Ibid, p. 186.
    15. Johann, Count von Thurn und Valsassina-Como-Vercelli
    16. Some historians have claimed the two princes had been in a bordello just prior to the assault and had gotten very drunk, causing a great disturbance. Others claim they had visited a male bordello and were enroute back to their hotel when the policeman jumped into action against them. There is no historical proof of either scenario although mention of both can be found in archival texts and in highly respected works.
    17. The sword did nick the tsarevitch’s forehead with a small scar resulting thereafter.
    18. Empress Shōken (1849-1914)
    19. Maylunas, Andre and Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra: Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday, 1997, p. 66.
    20. Ibid
    21. Ibid, p. 69.
    22. “Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovitch,” The Other Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Grand Dukes, East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory.com Publishers, 2012, p. 204.
    23. Grand Duchess Olga Feodorovna was born Princess Cäcilie Auguste of Baden. Members of this family held the rank of both prince/princess and margrave/margravine of Baden with the qualification of Grand Ducal Highness. She was the daughter of Grand Duke Leopold and his wife Princess Sophie of Sweden. Upon receiving the news that her son Michael, known as Miche-Miche within the Romanov family, had married morganatically, Olga suffered a massive heart attack and died in the waiting room of the train station in Kharkiv (modern Ukraine’s second largest city). She had been traveling to Ai-Todor at the time; neither her husband nor any of her children were with her. She read the telegram announcing Michel’s ill-advised marriage after passing through Kharkiv. Michael had married Sophie von Merenberg in San Remo. Olga suffered the heart attack moments after reading the telegram. As the nearest city was Kharkiv the train returned there. Olga was carried into the emperor’s waiting room (all Russian train stations on the train lines used by the imperial family had a special suite of rooms kept constantly at the ready in case a Romanov needed to rest or await another train). Doctors attended her there but she was not moved to a hospital. She lingered at the train station for three days before dying of a second heart attack on 12 April 1891. She was only fifty-one years of age.
    24. “Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovitch,” The Other Grand Dukes: Sons and Grandsons of Russia’s Grand Dukes, East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory.com Publishers, 2012, p. 204.
    25. Queen Victoria was no religious fanatic. In fact, despite being head of the Church of England, she had many Lutheran leanings in her beliefs. She saw the need for changing religion within royal circles as an occasional necessity. After all, monarchs needed to embrace the religion of their people in order to truly be one with them. Queen Victoria knew that Alicky would have to become Russian Orthodox, which she simply referred to as ‘becoming Greek,’ and therefore, despite liberal attitudes in general, she was not keen to promote the marriage. Louis counted on Victoria’s support in attempting to end all hope for a Russian marriage but Ella was resilient if nothing else and continued to keep that hope alive. Through Minnie, who certainly did not support such a match, Alix and Bertie also joined the queen in pressuring Alicky to look elsewhere. She had already rejected their son Eddy and as such they were not particularly fond of her.
    26. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file, 1890)
    27. Ibid
    1. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Alexander III file, 1890)
    2. Hall, Coryne. Imperial Dancer: Matilde Kschessinska and the Romanovs, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, Ltd, 2005, p. 41.
    3. Ibid
    4. From the published diaries of Princess Catherine Radziwill who wrote under the pseudonym: Count Vassili.
    5. Both men quickly fell in love with Matilde and soon they were both lavishing generous gifts on her, such as her own summer villa (dacha) at Strelna and costly jewelry. The menage a tois became the talk of Saint Petersburg and eventually all of royal Europe. Matilde gave birth to a son in 1902 whom she named Vladimir (but who was called Vovo) but neither man knew who was the father. In the end, after the revolution and exile, Matilde married Grand Duke Andrei. The two settled in France. During the long years she had been involved with both grand dukes, Matilde was able to amass a huge real estate portfolio because of the lavish generosity of both suitors. Her mansion in Saint Petersburg (which she had received in settlement when Nicky broke with Matilde) became famous and it was here, after the Bolsheviks came to power, that Lenin held court and from her second floor balcony where he addressed gathered crowds.
    6. In late December 2017, researcher Moskovsky Komsomolet (not known to this author) announced that the Russian State Historical Archives reported it had materials from the private collection of Matilde Kschessinska written in her own hand confirming she had become pregnant by the tsarevitch in 1893 but when only a few months into the pregnancy she lost the baby after suffering injuries in a sleigh accident in Saint Petersburg. This is the only formal proof that Nicholas had impregnated Matilde during their liaison. Such proof has yet to be released to the public by the state archives agency. Matilde would have been twenty-one in 1893 and Nicky would have been twenty-five at the time of the pregnancy.
    7. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Count Vladimir N. Lamsdorf diary, 8 April 1894).
    8. Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch was now well settled in the Caucasus and could not return to imperial life in Saint Petersburg. His health would just not permit such activity nor would the climate be conducive to the fragile state of his health. After Nicky, George was the next tsarevitch. With his marriage to Alicky looming Nicky could look forward to sons being born to them who would push George further down the line of succession, which is what they both desired.
    9. Massie, Robert K. Nicholas and Alexandra, New York: Random House, 1967, p. 32
    10. Pope-Hennessy, James. Queen Victoria and Windsor and Balmoral, London: George Allen & Unwin 1959, p.301.
    11. Ernie of Hesse was a good man, and devoted to his family, especially to Queen Victoria but he should never have been forced into this marriage. Victoria Melita was otherwise infatuated with her cousin on her mother’s side of the family, Grand Duke Kyril Vladimirovich, eldest son of Miechen and Vladimir. Ernie had difficulty controlling his sexual urges. He was said to have taken to his bed every stable boy and young male servant in Darmstadt. A child was born of his unhappy union with Victoria Melita, a daughter Elizabeth (1895-1903), and a second child was stillborn, a son born 25 May 1900. The couple remained married as long as Queen Victoria lived but both were miserable throughout the marriage. As soon as their mutual grandmother died they separated. The catalyst occurred when Victoria Melita returned home after a visit abroad. She had been away from Darmstadt for some time and upon returning she found her husband in bed with a young man. Without a word she simply turned around and walked out of the palace never to return. In time, after much family drama, the two divorced causing great scandal amongst the royal families of Europe. Victoria Melita eventually married her true love and became known as the Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia, wife of Grand Duke Kyril. Ernie remarried at any rate. He took as his second wife Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich as Darmstadt had to have an heir which only Ernie could provide. Of this second marriage two sons were born—George Donatus, known as Don within the family, who eventually married the elder sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and a second son, Prince Louis.
    12. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor, Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, p. 74.
    13. The Edinburghs used part of Maria Alexandrovna’s Appanage income to build this town palace as a place for them to reside in while Uncle Ernst of Saxe Coburg (Prince Albert’s older brother) lived on as reigning duke. This square, squat, three story building much more resembled a bank headquarters than a home but it served the Edinburghs well until Alfred succeeded to the duchy at Ernst II’s death when they took over the several palaces and castles at their disposal in both duchies – Coburg and Gotha.
    14. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor, Nicholson and Watson Limited, 1937, p 76
    15. Minnie was not Alix of Hesse’s aunt. She was a cousin by marriage but nothing more than this but it was common in the royal houses at this time to refer to other royals of an older generation as aunts and uncles whether or not there existed such close blood ties.
    16. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and the Empress Marie Feodorovna, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor, Nicholson a
and Watson Limited, 1937, p. 77.
    17. Ibid
    18. The Vorontsov Palace stood at 106 Quai de la Moika.
    19. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Tsar Alexander III file, 1894)
    20. Nicholas of Greece, HRH Prince. My Fifty Years, London: Hutchinson, 1926, p. 116.
    21. RA/Z/499/145
    22. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 204.
    23. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia, Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2006, p. 162
    24. Ibid, p. 163
    25. Ibid
    26. RA/Z/499/79 (translated from the original German).
    27. www.alexanderpalace.org
    28. Major-General Sir Arthur Edward Augustus Ellis, GCVO, CSI (13 December 1837 – 11 June 1907).
    29. RA/Z/499 (30 October 1894)
    30. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2012, p. 376.
    31. RA/499/GV/2 November 1894
    32. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2012, p. 376.
    33. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Count Vorontsov-Dashkov file)
    34. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2012, p. 376.
    35. RA/VIC/Add.C07/1: Charlotte Knollys to Francis Knollys, 11 November 1894.
    36. Ibid
    37. Ibid
    38. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2012, p.377.
    39. Minnie was also supported by her wider family including her brothers Crown Prince Fredrik and Prince Waldemar of Denmark, her other sister Thyra, the Duchess of Cumberland, and a host of Danish, Greek, British and Hanoverian nephews and nieces.
    40. Diaries of the Empress Marie Feodorovna (1894).
    41. The Russian Orthodox adherents remain standing through the entirety of their services.
    42. The Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Funeral Ritual of Tsar Alexander III)
    43. RA/Z/499/114
    44. RA/Z/499
    45. Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia (Princess Henry of Prussia file, November 1894)
    46. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg, (Alexandra Feodorovna file, November 1894)
    47. RA/Z/499
    1. Tantzos, G. Nicholas. King by Chance: King George I of Greece. New York: Atlantic International Publications, 1988, p. 104.
    2. Ibid
    3. Ibid
    4. Tantzos, G. Nicholas. King by Chance: King George I of Greece. New York: Atlantic International Publications, 1988, p. 104.
    5. Ibid
    6. Ibid
    7. Tantzos, G. Nicholas. King by Chance: King George I of Greece. New York: Atlantic International Publications, 1988, p. 104.
    8. Ibid
    9. Ibid
    10. RA/AA/1895
    11. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Khodynka file/ May 1896).
    12. Ibid
    13. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Khodynka file/May 1896)
    14. A gift of wine to someone badly injured might seem odd in 2018 but in 1894 such a gift of excellent wine was quite a valuable gift to give to people who had nothing. It was not only considered a rare and costly gesture but also as pain medicines were generally not available, wine was seen as a means to help those suffering serious pain.
    15. Miller, Ilana. “Grand Duke Serge Alexandrovitch.” The Grand Dukes, Edited by Arturo E. Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory Publishers, 2010, p. 141.
    16. Russian Imperial State Archives, Moscow (Grand Duke Serge Alexandrovitch file/May 1896/Khodynka).
    17. Ibid
    18. Ibid
    19. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie. Edited by Edward J. Bing, London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, Ltd., 1939, p.118.
    20. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meyer Publishers, Inc., 2006, p. 179.
    21. Alix in Britain would take on the same degree of selfishness when she would finally become queen in 1901.
    22. Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch was simultaneously proclaimed Ataman of the Cossacks.
    23. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia, Teaneck, New Jersey Holmes and Meyer publishers, Inc., 2006, p.: 176.
    24. George Alexandrovitch never married. In fact there was no verifiable proof that he had ever been involved with any woman during his medical exile. Court gossips, however put it about that he had married in 1894 and that this marriage produced three children – a daughter and two sons – who took the family name of a Romanovsky.
    25. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey Holmes and Meyer publishers, Inc., 2006, p. 112
    26. Ibid, pp. 185 – 186.
    27. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file, August 1899)
    28. This woman belonged to the Malakani sect of eastern Asian Christians known for a great love for each other and for all strangers and so it is no wonder this woman tenderly cared for George as he was dying.
    29. Like all Russian grand dukes, George was appointed to several regiments at birth and held high level a la suite posts in the Russian military even though he could not serve in these capacities because of poor health; although he did hold the actual naval rank which he had earned before his health had deteriorated.
    30. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meyer publishers, 2006, p. 186.
    1. Xenia and Sandro had seven children together: Irene (1895), Andrei (1897), Feodor (1898), Nikita (1900), Dimitri (1901), Rostislav (1902), and Vasili (1907).
    2. Alexandra Feodorovna gave birth to her fourth daughter, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nicholaievna, who was born on 18 June 1901.
    3. Gelardi, Julia P. From Splendor to Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2011, pp. 177 – 178.
    4. Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha would eventually marry. Her mother did not approve, and did much to thwart the union, but on 15 July 1909 she married Alfonso de Orleans y Borbón, Infante of Spain and Duke of Galliera (12 November 1886 – 6 August 1975). He was a cousin of King Alfonso XIII. Beatrice met Alfonso at the king’s wedding to Beatrice’s cousin, Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg. Beatrice refused to convert to Catholicism and so King Alfonso granted his permission for the marriage but he did so with reservations. The couple was forced to live outside of Spain as a consequence. At her own volition, Beatrice was received into the Catholic Church in August 1913. The couple thereafter returned to Spain.
    5. Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna, the younger, (born 1890) and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich (born 1891).
    6. Lee, William and Lisa Davidson. “Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovitch: (1860 – 1919).” The Grand Dukes, edited by Arturo E. Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory Publishers, 2010, p. 158.
    7. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie, edited by Edward J. Bing, London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, Limited, 1937, pp. 168 – 170.
    8. Ibid, p. 171.
    9. Duke Peter’s mother was Her Imperial Highness Princess Eugenie of Leuchtenberg, a daughter of the 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg (whose origins were both Napoleonic and Romanov) and his Romanov wife Grand Duchess Maria Nicholaievna. Peter’s father was an Oldenburg but also a descendent of Tsar Paul I and so three of his four grandparents were blood line Romanovs. He was also immensely wealthy.
    10. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Alexandra Feodorovna file, 1903).
    11. Ibid
    12. She did return to the Crimea after the revolution when she and numerous other members of the Romanov family were held there under house arrest, but she never returned there while Nicholas II reigned, not even to enjoy the magnificent new white limestone palace which took the place of the mold and mildew infested Malay Palace where Sasha had died.
    13. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Alexandra Feodorovna file, 1895)
    14. The tsar abdicated for himself and his son Alexis on 15 March 1917.
    15. In 1885 Tsar Alexander III began the custom of presenting his empress with a valuable, one-of-a-kind object d’art in the form of an enameled egg. These eggs were presented to the empress at Easter each year. Sasha commissioned ten eggs as gifts to Minnie between 1885 and 1916. Each year the theme of the egg was chosen by the tsar in advance and the workshops of Peter Carl Fabergé were charged with their creation. When Nicholas II came to the throne he continued his late father’s custom by ordering two eggs each year as Easter gifts for his mother, Minnie, and his for wife, Alexandra. This custom continued for twenty years with forty Fabergé Eggs being created for the two empresses during the reign of Nicholas II. The collection was broken up and sold off by the Soviet regime after the revolution. It is found today in numerous museums and private collections although a few Fabergé eggs remain in the Kremlin’s exhibit dedicated to the Romanov treasures. Although priceless, some experts say that if sold as a complete collection (which is no longer really feasible) the Russian Imperial Easter Egg Collection would garner upwards of $1 billion dollars.

      Fabergé created objects d’art for other Romanovs as well as for Alix and Bertie in Britain. Fabergé also created a valuable picture frame for George V. It stood on his desk for the entirety of his life but it did not contain a photograph of Queen Mary or one of his mother, Queen Alexandra. This Fabergé gold and enamel frame held the likeness of Julie Stoner, the first love of Georgie of Wales.

    1. Vorontsov lived between 27 May 1837 and 15 January 1916; during his lifetime he received every high honor the Russian tsars could award: receiving in due course the grand cross class of the Orders of Saint Anne, Saint George, Saint Vladimir, Saint Stanislaw, the White Eagle, Saint Alexander Nevsky (with diamonds) and finally Saint Andrew, the First Called (with diamonds) – Russia’s highest honor. He also was decorated with the Imperial Family Order (portraits of the reigning tsar painted on ivory ovals and surrounded by diamonds, the brooch affixed to the sky blue ribbon of the Order of Saint Andrew which was displayed behind the brooch in the form of the Saint Andrew’s cross (“X”). This imperial family order was worn on the breast of military uniforms only. Vorontsov had earlier been raised by Sasha to the office of General of the Calvary.
    2. When Nicholas II granted a parliament (Duma) to the nation, he simultaneously transferred the Council of the Empire to the role of Upper House of the Imperial Parliament, the Duma becoming the lower house directly representing the Russian people.
    3. Born 16 November 1838; Died 1 July 1927.
    4. This translates in a tender way to: ’my children.’
    5. Translating to: “Most Imperial Majesty, dear mother”
    6. Services des Archives, Ministère des Affairs Etrangères (France): Archives Diplomatiques/Maurice Paléologue/Saint-Petersbourg, 1914.
    7. Massie, Robert K. Nicholas and Alexandra. New York: Random House Publishers, 1967, p. 120.
    8. Ibid
    9. Ibid
    10. He retired in1905 and died in 1907.
    11. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Kishinev pogrom file/April 1903).
    12. Tsarevitch, Pallada, and Retvizan.
    13. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Nicholas II /Russo-Japanese War file).
    14. Robert K. Massie. Nicholas and Alexandra. New York: Random House, 1967, p. 92.
    15. Normally, 100,000 soldiers were stationed in the capital for the defense of Saint Petersburg with about 1,000 troops present to guard the various palaces of the imperial family.
    16. All of the royal regiments of Europe accepted only the finest looking, most handsome, men for membership in their elite corps. It was no different in Russia. In fact, Russia took the search for handsome men to an extreme. Since the reign of Catherine the Great, imperial practice required that all the officers of its various regiments had to stand no shorter than 5’ 11”. The men of the Preobrazhensky Regiment had to be fair-haired with blue eyes; the Chevalier Guard had to stand at least six feet tall and had to look Germanic rather than Russian; the Semenovsky regiment was filled with only dark-haired men but their eyes likewise had to be blue; and in the Pavlovsky Regiment all officers had to have short-stubbed noses like its founder, Tsar Paul I.

      The Russians went even further in their regimental requirements. The horses of each regiment had to exactly match each other in size and coloring: the Dragoons rode chestnut horses, the Chevalier Guards rode matching light bay horses, and the Guard à Cheval had stables full of matching all-black steeds. Breeding programs were a part of each regiment’s life with immense stables and breeding farms established outside the capital for each just for the purpose of producing horses up to the standards of imperial regulations.

    17. Cowles, Virginia. The Last Tsar. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Publishers, 1977, p. 75.
    18. Gapon was himself murdered by revolutionaries after he had admitted to them that he had served as a secret agent of the Ohkrana, the state secret police. His comrades hanged him after a summary trial of their own making on 10 April 1906 moments after his confession to them.
    19. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Serge Alexandrovitch file, 1905)
    20. “Serge Alexandrovitch,” The Grand Dukes, Edited by Arturo Beéche. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory Publishing, 2010, p.147.
    21. Serge’s killer did not flee the scene. He stood proudly in place shouting ‘death to the tsar; death to his family” when he was apprehended. Ella went to his prison cell that night to speak with the man who had so coldly murdered her husband. Ivan Kalyayev was unrepentant; he was hanged on 23 May 1905 despite Ella’s attempt to see him through to redemption.
    22. In time, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna would askew the pomp of imperial Russia. She sold or gave away all of her possessions using the money to found a new order of nuns, the Sisters of Ss. Martha and Mary.
    1. RA/EDWVII/January 1901
    2. Ibid
    3. RA/EDWVII/January 1901
    4. The Royal House of Hanover ruled in Great Britain after 1714 with the ascent of George I. The Hanoverian monarchs included George I, George II, George III, George IV, William IV and Victoria. Edward VII certainly had Hanoverian blood rushing through his veins, and his personality mimicked his Hanoverian ancestors more than it did his father’s family, especially his over active libido, but officially he was the first king of the House of Saxe Coburg-Gotha, the family of his father Prince Albert.
    5. Scholars agree now that this was probably the first of many small strokes suffered by the queen from this date until her death in January 1901.
    6. RA/VIC/journal/May 1898
    7. Van der Kiste, John. Alfred: Queen Victoria’s Second Son. London: Fonthill Media Limited, 2013, p. 168.
    8. The Empress Frederick had breast cancer which went unattended for too long, although she, too, sought medical attention while in England for her mother’s Diamond Jubilee. By then, the cancer had metastasized eventually spreading to her spine. Bertie and Alix thought it best that the queen never know the extent of Vicky’s cancer diagnosis although his sisters, particularly Beatrice and Louise, believed otherwise.
    9. RA/VIC/journal/31 July 1900
    10. RA/VIC/journal/15 August 1900
    11. Jane Spencer, Baroness Churchill (1 June 1826 – 24 December 1900) was the wife of John Spencer, 2nd Baron Churchill. Her husband was a distant relation to both Sir Winston Churchill and Lady Diana Spencer who became the princess of Wales in 1981. Jane Spencer was a Lady of the Bedchamber from 1854 until her death making her the longest serving woman in Queen Victoria’s personal Household. During these forty-seven years she and the queen became close friends and Jane’s death caused such sorrow in the queen her health took a marked downturn as a consequence. Jane died in her sleep from heart failure. Her body was not found until the next morning, Christmas day 1900.
    12. “Victoria, The Greedy Queen,” Royalty Magazine, (September, 2017), pp.62-66
    13. RA/VIC/19 January 1901
    14. RA/VIC/19 January 1901
    15. Ibid
    16. Princess Alice of Albany was one of two children born to Prince Leopold and his wife Princess Helena of Waldeck-Pyrmont (sister of Queen Emma of The Netherlands). Alice’s younger brother Charles inherited the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha when Uncle Alfred died (as his only son, Alfred, had died before him at age 24 in 1899). Alice would go on to marry Prince Alexander of Teck, Fat Mary’s third son (and fourth child). Alice became HRH Princess Alexander of Teck at her marriage to Alge in February 1904 in Saint George’s Chapel. She played a visible role in the reigns of Victoria, Edward VII and George V who became her brother-in-law when George married May of Teck (Queen Mary). When the royal family disavowed all of its German origins and titles during the First World War, the Tecks lost their princely titles and their rank of Serene Highness. Each was given an appropriate noble title in Great Britain; Alge became the Earl of Athlone. These changes took effect on 17 July 1917 and thereafter Alice became known as HRH Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone. She retained her rank of Royal Highness, and her title of princess, because Alice was a male-line grandchild of a British monarch.

      At the time of her death Alice was Queen Victoria’s last surviving grandchild and the longest living blood member of the British royal family. She died on 3 January 1981 at the age of ninety-seven. Others in the royal family would also live to an advanced age but in her time, Alice was the oldest and most venerated member of the old royal family.

    17. Alice, HRH Princess. For My Grandchildren, Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1966, p.102
    18. Ibid, pp. 102-103
    19. Ibid, p. 103
    20. Charles, Prince of Wales has held this title since 1958 and in 2018 he achieved the same milestone. Prince Charles is now the longest ever serving Prince of Wales.
    21. There is a difference between a body lying-in-repose and it lying-in-state. In the former, the viewing of the dead queen was a strictly private affair – exclusive to Victoria’s family and the Household officials at Osborne. Her being placed on view for them in a private setting is referred to diplomatically as lying-in-repose.

      When a head of state, or head of a church, is placed on public display, either in an open or a closed casket, specifically for public veneration, the term applied to this form of viewing is properly known as a lying-in-state. Monarchs, presidents, and popes, as well as, heads of other churches, all lie-in-state. All other officials, however, lie-in-repose. Victoria left instructions that she was not to lie-in-state. The only public view of her casket by the public was during its transfer from Osborne to Windsor.

    22. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince. New York: Random House Trade Paperback Edition, 2012, p. 422.
    23. RA/EDWVII/24 January, 1901
    24. Ibid
    25. Pope Leo XIII appointed a promising young monsignor, Eugenio Pacelli, to carry his condolence letter to London. Pacelli would go on to become Pope Pius XII in 1939.
    26. http://www.thamesweb.co.uk/windsor/windsorhistory/royalfunerals/queenvictoriafuneral, January 27 1936; Major Cecil V. Levita, MVO
    1. May of Teck (at the time Duchess of Cornwall and York but soon to be Princess of Wales) later regretted declining the offer of Osborne House as York Cottage would soon become too inadequate for their growing family’s needs and also she felt the ugly cottage to be below the dignitary of the Prince and Princess of Wales.
    2. Healy, Edna. The Queen’s House, New York: Pegasus Books LLC, 1998, p.192.
    3. RA/EDWVII/ May 1901
    4. Healy, Edna. The Queen’s House, New York: Pegasus Books LLC, 1998, p.193.
    5. So great was Probyn’s love for Queen Alexandra, and her great fondness for him in return, that after his death, one year before her own, Alix erected a monument to her closest friend on the grounds of the Sandringham Estate.
    6. Cust was the Director of the National Portrait Gallery at the time and he would now hold both posts simultaneously.
    7. Cust, Sir Lionel. King Edward VII and His Court: Some Reminiscences, New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1930, pp. 28-30.
    8. Ibid, p. 35
    9. In fact, the first time Alix had been in Queen Victoria’s private rooms at Osborne was during the final days of the old queen’s life.
    10. RA/AA/34
    11. William and Adelaide had three children together, none surviving past infancy, which opened the succession to Victoria as her late father was next in line and she after him.
    12. For the most part, Balmoral looks today as it did under King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra; being only slightly changed from how it looked under Queen Victoria. Of all the royal residences, Balmoral remains the most faithful to its original design.
    13. Ibid, p.41
    14. RA/AA/32/28/Letter to Prince George from the Prince of Wales
    15. RA/AA/33
    16. RA/AA/32
    1. RA/AA/32
    2. RA/AA/32/28
    3. This is the beginning of the current Royal Collection as a complete body of artwork.
    4. Edgar, Donald. Palace: A Fascinating Behind-the-Scenes Look at How Buckingham Palace Really Works, London: W. H. Allen and Company, Limited, 1983, p. 73.
    5. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince. New York: Random House Trade Paperback Edition, 2012, p. 439.
    6. Cust, Sir Lionel. King Edward VII and His Court: Some Reminiscences, New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1930, p.79.
    7. This change greatly irritated Nicholas II and his wife and mother as well as the German Kaiser as they all believed this would welcome unworthy people at Buckingham Palace. Secretly, they resented Bertie’s Jewish friends being received officially by the British monarch.
    8. The current queen, Elizabeth II, wears the larger star once belonging to Prince Albert. The smaller Victorian diamond Garter star had been worn by the late Queen Mother until her death. Neither Prince Philip nor Prince Charles has been seen wearing this diamond star at any time after the Queen Mother’s death.
    9. The Order of Merit was formally erected on 26 June 1902; the date of Edward VII’s intended coronation had it not been postponed at the last moment due to his sudden illness. The British Order of Merit was one of the first state orders to be open to both men and women from the outset. The first female recipient was Florence Nightingale who was given the Order of Merit by Bertie in 1907.
    10. Unlike the Royal Victorian Order which the new king awarded abundantly, he reserved the new Order of Merit to a very select few.
    11. Helena was known as Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. Louise was known as Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll.
    12. RA/AA/32/28
    13. RA/EDVII/Coronation 1902
    14. Both King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra’s velvet and ermine coronation robes were made for them by Ede and Ravenscroft of 93 Chancery Lane, London. This firm has made coronation robes for every English king, and his consort, since 1689.
    15. RA/AA/32/28
    16. Queen of the United Kingdom as symbolized in white English satin and Empress of India symbolized in gold gauze.
    17. RA/CC/42/53
    18. Ibid
    19. Ridley, Jane. The Heir Apparent: A Life of Edward VII: The Playboy Prince, New York: Random House Trade Paperback Edition, 2012, p. 442.
    20. Ibid, p.443
    21. RA/EDWVII/June 1902
    22. Cesar Ritz journal/June 1902
    23. Hough, Richard. Edward and Alexandra: Their Private and Public Lives, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991, pp.211-213.
    24. Ibid, pp. 213-214
    25. This he did; and on returning to Buckingham Palace, Alix refused to wipe the oil off, wishing to bear the mark of her anointing as long as possible.
    26. Sir Thomas Lipton, for instance, donated enough tea to provide beverages for 500,000 guests and the confectioner, Rowndtree, provided a chocolate sweet as dessert for each guest.
    27. RA/AA/August 1902
    28. Ibid
    29. RA/EDWVII/Coronation, 9 August 1902
    1. Madge, Tim. Royal Yachts of the World, East Molesley, Surrey: Thomas Reed Publications, 1997, p. 92.
    2. RA/EDWVII/Victoria and Albert III/1901
    3. Ibid
    4. RA/Frederick Ponsonby papers/1901
    5. RA/EDWVII/Victoria and Albert III/1901
    6. The papal yacht was christened Immacolata Concezione in 1859.
    7. Madge, Tim. Royal Yachts of the World, East Molesley, Surrey: Thomas Reed Publications, 1997, p. 88.
    8. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna correspondence, 1901)
    1. https://www.royal-menus.com/royal-menus—edward-vii-hosts-shah-of-persia
    2. The menu for the shah’s welcome banquet included: Crayfish bisque flavored with cognac; white fish molds in mayonnaise; lamb cutlets coated in white sauce – fried and served with creamed cucumber; poached chicken breasts dressed in a cream of tarragon sauce; roasted grouse and dressed crabs; various cold meats in aspic (no pork in deference to Muslim dietary restrictions); cold tomato salad; gratinée of puréed cauliflower; fried rice flour cakes coated in heavy cream; compôte de Reine Claude (stewed green plums named for Queen Claude of France who preferred them ); and various sweets with coffee. It should be noted that this was not a buffet service menu; each of these courses were served individually, each guest expected to eat everything offered by the hosts. A menu of this size was not only de rigueur on state occasions but similar meals were also offered each night at dinner at all Bertie’s tables.
    3. State visits across the world today mimic the format for entertainments designed by King Edward VII in 1902, although Queen Alexandra did not typically accompany the king as consorts do today when undertaking formal state visits abroad.
    4. Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz/ Prussian Privy State Archives, Berlin/ Edward VII von Großbritannien, 1903.
    5. Bertie was indeed the Uncle of Europe. He was uncle to Kaiser Wilhelm II, Tsar Nicholas II, Alexandra Feodorovna (Nicholas’s wife), Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, Queen Marie of Romania, Queen Sophie of Greece (her husband Constantine was Alix’s nephew), Ernst Ludwig of Hesse, Haakon of Norway (who was Alix’s nephew but he also became Bertie’s son-in-law), Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, and Christian X of Denmark. His sister-in-law was Minnie, the Dowager Empress of Russia, George I of Greece was his brother-in-law, as was Ernst August of Hanover and Frederick VIII of Denmark. King Ferdinand of Bulgaria, Albert I of Belgium and Carlos and Manuel of Portugal were second cousins through the Coburg line. In nearly every Court in Europe Bertie was either directly related to the monarch or to his spouse and as the antithesis of Wilhelm II in personality he easily melded this large group together in a single-mindedness set to thwart German ambitions.
    6. RA/AA/Ponsonby papers
    7. Bertie had gotten his mother to award de Soveral the grand cross of the Order of Ss. Michael and George, the award normally reserved for high level diplomats posted to London, and his own king, Carlos I, awarded him the grand cross of the Portuguese Order of the Tower and the Sword. When Bertie founded the Royal Victorian Order the rank of grand cross was quickly awarded to his friend the Marquis de Soveral.
    8. RA/AA/Luke Filde papers
    9. Ibid
    10. RA/AA/33/5
    11. RA/AA/Ponsonby papers
    1. Diplomatic Archives/National Archives of the United States/Theodore Roosevelt papers/Whitelaw Reid.
    2. Sir Frederick Ponsonby was a veteran of the Boer War and the Assistant Private Secretary to both Queen Victoria and afterwards to Edward VII.
    3. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 225.
    4. Bertie was the only Brit to sit during the journey as Portuguese royal protocol required everyone to remain standing until the king, and in this case his mother the dowager queen, retired. So the British suite was forced to stand for the duration of every event, including a rather long opera.
    5. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 232.
    6. Crown Prince Wilhelm and Prince Eitel Friedrich
    7. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 234.
    8. Technically this nation-state was known as the Kingdom of the Pontifical States with the reigning pope being simultaneously a secular king. For 1,000 years the popes were known as pope-king (il papa-re). After Garibaldi’s march on Rome, with the pope and his Court fleeing to safety behind the Vatican’s walls, a new nation was proclaimed, unified Italy, under a monarchy of the House of Savoy. The official title of the new nation was the Kingdom of Italy and from that time onward popes never left the confines of the original Vatican territory. This self-imposed exile triggered a political standoff which became known as the Roman Question. Those who supported the new king and his government (people the popes considered usurpers) were excommunicated and barred from the Vatican. Those who remained loyal to the pope were excluded from Roman society. This went on until 1929 when the new Vatican City State was created, given to the pope as sovereign but not king, and a huge indemnity was paid to the Church in reparation by the Italian state.

      When Italy originally confiscated the Papal States with it went billions of dollars in property value seized at the same time. The Church lost all of its revenue sources and the money it used for charity and so in 1929 all of these issues had to be rectified in a series of treaties signed by the two parties known as the Lateran Pacts. In 1903, however, visiting heads of state could not go from one Court to the other—the Papal Court to the Royal Court or vice versa. Visitors had to go back to their embassy or hotel after visiting one monarch and then start out again as neither side would permit direct entry to their palaces from the other side. The Roman Question plagued European affairs for decades and it is for these reasons King Victor Emmanuel III did not want Bertie to visit Pope Leo XIII.

    9. There was a military review in Bertie’s honor with 20,000 troops in the march passed. Again it was the Bersaglieri that impressed Bertie the most.
    10. Secret Vatican Archives (Lettere dei principe); titulati: Benedict XV, 1919. Note: After October 2019 known as the Vatican Apostolic Archive.
    11. RA/AA/35
    12. Great Britain and the Third French Republic signed the Entente Cordiale on 8 April 1904. The final version of the treaty was the work of Théophile Delcassé, France’s foreign minister, and his British counterpart Lord Lansdowne, but nothing positive would have been possible in 1904 without King Edward VII’s personal royal diplomacy in 1903 and his determination to bring France closer to Great Britain after centuries of mutual animosity.
    1. David Lloyd George was the scourge of the rich and powerful as they saw in him the loss of their influence and wealth. He would go on to become prime minister in 1916 under George V.
    2. RA/AA/Ponsonby papers, April 1904.
    3. RA-Denmark (Christian IX/ January 1906)
    4. Ibid
    5. Ibid
    6. RA-Denmark (Christian IX file/January 1906)
    7. See: Inter’lude
    8. As Oslo was then known.
    9. Chief amongst these were financial guarantees which provided for Haakon while he reigned in Norway and also other provisions for remuneration in the event that he was put out.
    10. Haakon VII would reign from 1905 until his death in 1957. His son would become Olav V and would reign from 1957 until his death in 1991. Queen Maud died in 1938, never feeling anything more than a British princess.
    11. Van der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children. Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishers, 1989, p. 107.
    12. These two daughters, Alexandra (born: 17 May 1891) and Maud (born: 3 April 1893) were not considered royal by birth as their heritage passed through father, not their royal mother Louise. In the British system, titles and rank could not normally pass through daughters and granddaughters and so they both took their titles and precedence through their father the duke of Fife. As such, one daughter was entitled Lady Alexandra Duff and the other as Lady Maud Duff. When Bertie elevated his daughter to the rank of Princess Royal, he simultaneously created his two Fife granddaughters princesses of the realm with the qualification of Highness. The two new princesses took precedence within the royal family after all those enjoying the rank of Royal Highness.
    13. Van der Kiste, John. Edward VII’s Children. Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishers, 1989, p. 111.
    14. Hough, Richard. Edward and Alexandra. New York: Saint Martin’s Press, 1992, p. 266.
    15. Ibid, pp. 266-67
    16. RA/AA/dietary preferences
    17. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie. Edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1917, 221.
    18. Hough, Richard. Edward and Alexandra. New York: Saint Martin’s Press, 1992, p. 277.
    19. Present in England for the French royal wedding were Queen Amalie of Portugal, King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, she also being a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and Bertie’s niece, members of the House of Bourbon-Parma and from the House of Orleans, and numerous other royalties including Queen Maud of Norway who was at Appleton for one of her frequent home visits.
    20. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 275.
    21. It was in point of fact both! Norway was founded as a Crown Republic which is much less royalistic than a constitutional monarchy form of government.
    22. HIMY Standard

      HIMY Polar Star

      HMY Victoria and Albert III

    23. RA/EDWVII/June 1908/Reval
    24. Ibid
    25. RA/EDWVII/June 1908/Reval
    26. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 303.
    27. Ibid, p. 367
    28. RA/EDWVII/May 1909
    29. RA/AA/35
    30. Courtesy of Palazzo Ca’ Capello Archives.
    31. Ponsonby, Sir Frederick. Recollections of Three Reigns. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952, p. 362.
    32. Ibid, p. 363
    33. The House of Commons had passed the financial budget on 5 November 1909. The House of Lords vetoed it, as it was their right to do, on the thirtieth of that same month.
    34. Aronson, Theo. The King in Love: Edward VII’s Mistresses. London: John Murray, Ltd., 1988, p. 210.
    35. Ibid, p. 213
    36. Sir Ernest Cassel was a great financier whom Bertie had befriended when he was still Prince of Wales. Sir Ernest helped Bertie build his fortune which became the great cornerstone of the present queen’s wealth. Sir Ernest was Jewish, one of the king’s Jewish friends despised by both the tsar and the kaiser. His granddaughter and heir was Edwina Ashley who went on to marry Lord Louis Mountbatten.
    37. Aronson, Theo. The King in Love: Edward VII’s Mistresses. London: John Murray, Ltd., 1988, p. 218.
    38. RA/GV/April 1910
    39. The eldest sons were: Prince David who later became Prince of Wales, later King Edward VIII, and finally Duke of Windsor, and Prince Albert who would later become King George VI. Prince Albert was the father of the present queen.
    40. Aronson, Theo. The King in Love: Edward VII’s Mistresses. London: John Murray, Ltd., 1988, p. 251.
    41. Private papers of Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher of Esher.
    42. RA/GV/April 1910
    43. Private paper of Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher of Esher.
    44. Aronson, Theo. The King in Love: Edward VII’s Mistresses. London: John Murray, Ltd., 1988, p. 252.
    45. Once the king had been buried Mrs. Keppel resumed the life which she had built for herself and it was during this early period that she told, and retold, her version of the deathbed scene which painted her as a friend of both the dead king and his queen. Nothing could be further from the truth. Mrs. Keppel had been the lover of the dead king for all of his reign and she had merely been tolerated by the queen because Alix had no other option than to do so but when she was free from the demands of her husband, she made it clear in the firmest of terms that Alice Keppel had been a genuine hardship for her.
    1. Special Note: The phonograph was introduced in 1877, Minnie had installed one in each of her homes, and on this visit she also presented one to her father who danced for the first time to one of the recordings which Minnie had also bought along with her to Copenhagen.

    2. RA – Denmark (Christian IX file, January 1906)
    3. Beéche, Arturo and Coryne Hill. APAPA: King Christian IX of Denmark and All of His Descendants. East Richmond Heights, California: Eurohistory Publishers, 2014, p. 29.
    4. Hall, Coryne. Hvidøre: A Royal Retreat. Falkoping, Sweden: Rosvall Royal Books, 2012, p. 6.
    5. RA/AA/33/31
    6. Today Klampenborg is an affluent suburb of Copenhagen but in those days it was almost a two hour carriage ride from the Amalienborg Palace in central Copenhagen.
    7. RA-Denmark
    8. Hall, Coryne. Hvidøre: A Royal Retreat. Falkoping, Sweden: Rosvall Royal Books, 2012, p. 8.
    9. Ibid, p. 10.
    10. RA –Denmark
    11. RA/AA/33/31
    12. Hall, Coryne. Hvidøre: A Royal Retreat. Falkoping, Sweden: Rosvall Royal Books, 2012, p. 20.
    13. “Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie,” From the Dowager Empress at Bernstorff to Tsar Nicholas at Tsarskoye Selo (20 August 1907), ed. by Edward J. Bing, London: Ivor, Nicholson, and Watson, Ltd., 1937.
    14. Tsar Alexander II and the patriarch were more concerned with the massive church just to the south of the proposed building site. The Frederikskirke, known in Denmark as the Marble Church and known across Europe for its beauty, would surely overshadow everything else near to it because of its great neo-classical and baroque beauty and immense size which the tsar argued would surely dwarf the more modest Russian Church next door. Sasha’s suggestion that the exterior design would be starkly Russian so as to counter the effects of the European elegance of the Marble Church won over the tsar and so permission was granted.
    1. RA/AA/Sir Frederick Ponsonby file/May 1910.
    2. King Edward VII’s funeral held the record for the most foreign dignitaries in attendance at a state funeral; that is until this record was broken in April 2005 at the funeral of Pope John Paul II whose funeral rites surpassed every record for a public gathering in history.
    3. George V, Bertie’s son and heir;

      Kaiser Wilhelm II, Bertie’s nephew;

      Frederick VIII of Denmark, Bertie’s brother-in-law;

      George I of Greece, Bertie’s brother-in-law;

      Haakon VII of Norway, Bertie’s son-in-law (and nephew by marriage);

      Alfonso XIII of Spain, Bertie’s nephew by marriage;

      Manuel II of Portugal, Bertie’s Saxe Coburg cousin;

      Ferdinand of Bulgaria, Bertie’s Saxe Coburg cousin;

      Albert I of Belgium; Bertie’s Saxe Coburg cousin.

    4. Besides the nine reigning monarchs; forty other royal mourners rode in procession on horseback:

      Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the Turkish Crown Prince, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch, the Duke of Aosta representing Italy, Prince Fushimi of Japan, Crown Prince Constantine of Greece, Crown Prince Ferdinand of Romania, Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria representing the House of Wittlesbach, Duke Albrecht of Wurttemberg, the Crown Prince of Serbia, Prince Hendrik of The Netherlands, Grand Duke Ernest Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (cousin Augusta’s son), Henry of Prussia, Charles of Saxe Coburg, Johann Georg of Saxony, Prince Carl of Sweden, the Sovereign Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, the Hereditary Prince Mohamed Ali of Egypt, Prince Arthur of Connaught, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, his son Prince Albert, Prince Alexander of Battenberg, the Duke of Fife, the Duke of Teck, Prince Frank of Teck, Prince Alexander of Teck, Prince Andrei of Greece and his brother Prince Christopher, Grand Duke Michael Michaelovitch (Miche-Miche), Prince Max of Baden, the Crown Prince of Montenegro, Prince Philip of Saxe Coburg, the Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (cousin Augusta’s grandson), Imperial Prince Luis of Brazil, Prince Pierre, Duc de Penthievre, grandson of the late king Louis-Phillipe, Prince August Leopold of Saxe Coburg, Prince Wolrad of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Prince Bovaradej of Thailand, Count Gliechen, and Count von Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein.

    5. Twelve year-old Caésar was known formally as Caésar of Knotts. He was a wire-hair Fox Terrier whom the late king adored. Caésar traveled everywhere with the king and his position in the cortege seem most appropriate at the time of the king’s death although a dog had never before been included in a royal funeral.

      This practice would be repeated in 1945 at Franklin Roosevelt’s funeral when his dog, Fala, was present in the processions. It was again repeated in 2005 at the funeral of Prince Rainier of Monaco when his dog, Odin, followed his master’s casket in procession to the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Monaco-Ville.

      Caésar would survive his royal master by four years, dying in 1914, after spending the last years of his life with Queen Alexandra.

    6. Those that followed in carriages were:

      Queen Alexandra, Empress Marie Feodorovna, Tyra Duchess of Cumberland, the Princess Royal, Princess Victoria, Queen Maud, Queen Mary, Prince Edward (David) the future Edward VIII, his sister Mary, his brothers Albert (the future George VI), his brothers George and Henry, the late king’s sisters Princesses Christian and the Duchess of Argyll and Princess Henry of Battenberg; his sisters-in-law the duchesses of Connaught and Albany, his niece Princess Patricia of Connaught, his granddaughters Princesses Alexandra and Maud of Fife, Bertie’s two nieces Helena-Victoria and Marie Louise, Thyra’s son Prince George of Hanover, President Roosevelt, Prince Zaitao of China, and several representatives of non-monarchical governments.

    7. Lettres of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1937, p. 254.
    8. Ibid, p. 255.
    9. $12,700,000 USD in 2019
    10. King, Greg. The Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006, p. 415.
    11. Mayaluna, Andrei and Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra – Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday, 1997, p. 227.
    12. King, Greg. The Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006, 217.
    13. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Gregory Rasputin file/1905)
    14. Grand Duchess Militza was married to Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich. Her sister Anastasia initially married the head of a cadet branch of the imperial family, Prince George Maximilianovich, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg. After divorcing him, because he openly cavorted with his mistress, she married a second time to the imposing Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, the Commander-in-Chief of Russia’s armies.
    15. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Tsar Nicholas II file/Rasputin/1905)
    16. ‘Sunny’ was the most familiar endearment used by Nicholas for his wife Alexandra. Alicky in turn called Nicholas ‘Sunbeam’ on intimate occasions. These were the terms that they used for each other during love-making and when particularly sentimental towards one another, never in public or in the presence of Romanovs with whom they were not particularly close.
    17. Maylunas, Andre and Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas & Alexandra – Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday, 1997, p. 279.
    18. Taylor, Edmund. The Fall of the Dynasties. New York: Dorset Press, 1963, p. 68.
    19. Ibid
    20. Ibid, p. 163.
    21. Maylunas, Andre and Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas & Alexandra – Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday, 1997, pp. 294-95.
    22. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie. , edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1937. Pp. 214-15.
    23. Taylor, Edmund. The Fall of the Dynasties. New York: Dorset Press, 1963, P. 56.
    24. Ibid, p. 164.
    25. Ibid, p. 168.
    26. Vyrobova was a neurotic who encouraged Alicky’s insecurities. The empress provided her with a cottage outside the gates of the palace compound at Tsarskoye Selo. It was to this home that Rasputin would come when the empress wished to see him as she did not feel it safe to have him come to her inside the palace.
    27. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2001, p. 236.
    28. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Maria Feodorovna file)
    29. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2001, p. 238.
    30. Ibid
    31. Ibid, p. 240
    1. Approximately 650 miles from Saint Petersburg
    2. Maylunas, Andre and Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra – Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday, 1997, p. 364.
    3. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2001, p. 248.
    4. Like everyone in Saint Petersburg, Minnie was well-aware of Felix Yusopov’s gay and transvestite past and feared that her granddaughter was entering into as bad a mariage as had Olga with Duke Peter of Oldenburg years before. Marie summoned Felix to the Anitchkov and interrogated him at length. At the end of the interview she oddly gave her blessing to the union although when Tsar Nicholas heard the news of his mother’s approval, he was astounded by it.
    5. Purchased for the cost of 28,000 Danish Kroner.
    6. Some historians have suggested that King Fredrik actually died while visiting a nearby brothel but there is no known proof to support this claim.
    7. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1937, p. 287.
    8. Alexandra of Fife was Alix and Bertie’s granddaughter, the eldest surviving child of their daughter Louise and the Duke of Fife. Alexandra had been engaged to her first cousin, Christopher of Greece, son of Willy and Olga, but both sets of parents frowned on the two marrying, seeing both as unsuited to one another. So the engagement was permitted to lapse.

      In December 1911 the Fife family set out for Egypt to avoid the coming harsh English winter. While crossing the Mediterranean, a severe storm overtook their ship and it sank. The Fife’s were thrown into the unusually cold waters where they remained for a long while. Although they all eventually made it safely to shore, they were all soaked to the skin and had to walk four miles to the nearest shelter. The Duke of Fife developed pleurisy and subsequently pneumonia, dying on 29 January 1912, at the age of 62. His eldest daughter succeeded him in the title.

    9. Hall, Coryne and Senta Driver. Hvidore: A Royal Retreat. Falkoping: Rosvall Royal Books, 2012, p. 26.
    10. Peter I of the House of Karađorđević; king of Serbia from 1903-1918
    11. Maylunas, Andre and Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra – Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday, 1997, p. 398.
    12. Princess Victoria of Battenberg, the Tsarina Alexandra’s oldest sister, was at Tsarskoye Selo with a small group when war broke out. She fled so suddenly that she left the bulk of her best jewelry collection behind in the safe keeping of her sister. It would never be seen again. To return safely to Great Britain, Victoria and her party had to travel through Finland, Sweden, Denmark and then through hostile seas. In Finland, as they were making their way home to England, she met Minnie, Xenia and their party enroute back to Russia. There was no more time than for hugs and kisses as both groups greeted one another before hurrying off to make train connections that would eventually lead them all home safely.
    13. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2001, p. 256.
    14. Memoirs of the Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna
    15. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna file, 1914).
    16. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2001, p. 258.
    17. Kaiser Wilhelm II had many flaws and his arrogance and anti-British sentiments at times rightly caused alarm across Europe, but he was not the All-Highest autocrat he believed himself to be. By 1914, despite his constant blustering and war-mongering, it was the German General Staff that led Germany to war not the kaiser and it was not the kaiser who was at fault when peace could not be achieved. Kaiser Wilhelm was the figurehead of a limited monarchy but unlike his cousin George V who reigned in Britain under constraints of a constitutional parliamentary system, Wilhelm II was actually a figurehead under the constraints of a military dictatorship and, in the end, he did what he was told.
    18. Hindley, Geoffrey. The Royal Families of Europe. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 2000, p. 183.
    19. RA/AA/34/47
    20. RA/AA/34/48
    21. H.S.H. Prince Louis of Battenberg was married to Queen Victoria’s granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Louis had lived in Great Britain from age fourteen, serving in the navy from that age forward. He was as British as Churchill in his loyalty to the nation and in his devotion to both the British crown and the British Navy. But he was German born (despite being a naturalized British citizen) with a German surname. Rising anti-German sentiments were running so high he became a scapegoat; Churchill asked for his resignation and Queen Alexandra and other members of the royal family never forgave him for doing so.
    22. RA/AA/34/48
    23. Ibid
    24. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 285.
    25. RA/AA/34/48
    26. RA/AA/34/47
    27. Devere-Summers, Anthony. War and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Cassell Group, 1996, pp. 26-27.
    28. During the First World War royals from both sides of the conflagration would communicate when absolutely necessary through neutral Sweden. Crown Princess Margaret had been born a princess of Great Britain. She was the daughter of the Duke of Connaught and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. She would retransmit telegrams in her own name or would copy a letter from one side in her own hand before passing it along to the other. An appeal for a pardon for Edith Cavell was one of these rare occasions when Sweden was used to contact Wilhelm II. There is no existing proof that these pleas made their way to the kaiser in time and no response was ever forthcoming.
    29. Devere-Summers, Anthony. War and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Cassell Group, 1996, p. 27.
    30. RA/AA/35
    31. http://today-in-wwi.tumblr.com/post/132128392198/king-george-v-injured-in-france
    32. RA/CC/42/114
    1. Alexander (Sandro) Mikhailovich, Grand Duke of Russia. We, the Romanovs. Originally published as Once A Grand Duke: Memoirs of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia, Paris: 1931, pp. 197 – 98.
    2. Ibid
    3. Stavka is the term applied to the general headquarters of the Russian Imperial Army. It was sub-divided into administrative divisions including: the Department of General-Quartermaster, the Department of Organizing Troop Movement, Supplies, and Promotions, the Department of Military Transportation, the Department of the Russian Imperial Navy, and the liaison from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
    4. Alexander (Sandro) Mikhailovich, Grand Duke of Russia. We, the Romanovs. Originally published as Once A Grand Duke: Memoirs of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia, Paris: 1931, p.333.
    5. Ibid
    6. Ibid
    7. This division was filled with the refuge of the Russian military: criminals, murderers, butchers, malcontents, and fiercely independent men from regions on the outskirts of the empire.
    8. Alexander (Sandro) Mikhailovich, Grand Duke of Russia. We, the Romanovs. Originally published as Once A Grand Duke: Memoirs of Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia, Paris: 1931, p.335.
    9. The dowager empress would never acknowledge Kulikovsky’s presence, even after he provided her with two additional grandsons. He would live in her homes, and be by her side, but she never once called him by his Christian name nor did she ever once invite him to take a seat in her presence. He was also excluded from all gatherings of the Romanovs in exile.
    10. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Grand Duke Sergei Michaelovitch file/1916).
    11. Queen Olga of Greece, a Romanov by birth and present in her native country for the duration of the war, was the first to sign the petition. Grand Duke Dimitri was her grandson, the son of Olga’s daughter Alexandra who had died shortly after giving birth to him.
    12. Because of the acclamation that followed the murder, Purishkevich was neither punished nor banned. He returned to the front lines and lived unmolested until 1920.
    13. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovitch file/ 1916)
    14. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1937, p.300.
    15. Alexander (Sandro) Michaelovitch, Grand Duke of Russia. Always a Grand Duke. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc., 1932, pp. 321-22.
    16. Ironically, Michael could have named Natasha his empress-consort once he had been crowned tsar just as the family feared Tsar Alexander II would do with his beloved morganatic wife, Princess Catherine Dolgoruky after their marriage in 1880. This would have ended all social ostracization of the woman he had made his wife. Had he accepted the crown as offered, with constitutional restraints on the powers of the tsar, the second revolution may never have come to Russia.
    17. Russian State Historical Archives, Saint Petersburg (Marie Feodorovna diary/March 1917).
    18. Ibid
    1. Fisher Papers, 1 November 1914.
    2. RA/AA/35/4
    3. Fisher Papers, 19 January 1915.
    4. RA/AA/34/47
    5. RA/AA/34/48
    6. RA/AA/34/46
    7. RA/AA/37/74
    8. RA/AA/35/9
    9. RA/AA/35/6
    10. Devere-Summers, Anthony. War and the Royal Families of Europe. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1996, p. 43.
    11. Ibid
    12. Rose, Kenneth. King George V. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984, p. 176.
    13. RA/GEOV/1917
    14. RA/July 1917
    15. Alix was technically of German heritage herself, being born a princess of the ducal house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg, but since her parents were Danish in all their sympathies and since Alix was raised in Denmark, no one, including Alix herself, considered her to be anything but thoroughly Danish.
    16. RA/GEOV/17 July 1917
    17. Devere-Summers, Anthony. War and the Royal Families of Europe. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1996, p. 44.
    18. Just as George V and Albert I had renamed their royal houses in a move to de-Germanize, Nicholas II also renamed Saint Petersburg. He translated the Germanic Sankt Petersburg into pure Russian, Petrograd, both titles suggesting Peter’s city. After Lenin’s death in 1924 the city was renamed, once again becoming Leningrad, a title it held until 1991 when it was returned to its original historic title of Saint Petersburg.
    19. The Romanov detainees in the Crimea were:

      At Ai-Todor: The Dowager Empress Marie; Grand Duchess Xenia; Prince Demitri, Xenia’s son; Princess Irina, her daughter, and Irina’s husband Prince Felix; Prince Felix’s parents; Prince Vassili, Xenia’s son. (Xenia’s husband Grand Duke Sandro had already left Russia to help secure aid for the imperial family). Also at Ai-Todor were Princess Sophia Dolgoruky wife of Prince Serge Dolgoruky, Minnie’s equerry, who was in service to her at this time; Countess Zenaide Mengden, Minnie’s lady-in-waiting; Princess Aprak Obolensky, another lady-in-waiting; and three English governesses to the children in the group – Misses King, Henton and Coster. All of the above were also joined by their households from the Ai-Todor estate.

      At Dulber (which is just down the hillside from Ai-Todor): Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholevitch; his wife Grand Duchess Anastasia; Grand Duke Peter Nicholevitch; Peter’s wife Grand Duchess Militza; their daughter Princess Marina; their second daughter Princess Nadezhda and her husband Prince Nicholas Orlov; and Prince Roman, son of Grand Duke Peter. All of the above were also joined by their households from the Dulber estate.

    20. Letters of Tsar Nicholas and Empress Marie, edited by Edward J. Bing. London: Ivor Nicholson and Watson, 1937, pp. 301-304.
    21. Russian State Historical Archives, Moscow (Marie Feodorovna file, Crimea/ 1919)
    22. HRH Prince Michael of Kent, grandson of King George V and cousin to Queen Elizabeth II, has stated firmly that his late grandfather had backed several secret plans to rescue Tsar Nicholas II and his family.
    23. Cowles, Virginia. The Last Tsar. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1977, p. 213.
    24. Some historians have suggested that the grand duchesses, and even the tsar, had been repeatedly raped by this band of brutal thugs but there is, of course, no proof to substantiate any of these claims.
    25. Cowles, Cowles. The Last Tsar. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1977, p. 216.
    26. Luke 23:34
    27. Mager, Hugo. Elizabeth Grand Duchess of Russia. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998, pp. 330-332.
    28. RA/CC/50
    29. Ibid
    30. RA/GEOV/1918
    31. Mary Gladstone Papers, British Museum/Add.MSS/46219
    1. The Marchioness of Milford Haven to Mrs. Richard Crichton, 22 May 1919; Broadlands Archives.
    2. Mary Gladstone Papers, British Museum/Add.MSS/46218.
    3. Ibid
    4. Ingham, Robert. What Happened to the Empress. Malta: Saint Joseph’s Institute, 1949, p. 78.
    5. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier, 2001, p. 326.
    6. RA/AA/Empress Marie 1919
    7. Marie Pavlovna (the younger) attributed the failure of her first marriage to her husband’s rumored homosexuality.
    8. Crawford, Rosemary and Donald. Michael and Natasha, New York, NY: Scribner, 1997.
    9. Home Office Archives: 45/11549
    10. All of Marie Feodorovna’s valuables left behind in Russia — her vast jewel collection, Faberge items, her clothes and her private collections – all went to the auction block later in the decade. Stalin ordered these all sold to bolster the struggling economy in the Soviet Union.
    11. RA/AA/35/28
    12. This is just over six stone in British measurements.
    13. RA/Charlotte Knollys/1920
    14. In 2021 this equates to the sum of $912,000.
    15. In 2019 this sum equates to $68,000 but Queen Alexandra’s financial condition was not much better than her sister’s due to her own extravagant spending and generous charitable giving and therefore this sum was never paid out.
    16. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier, 2001, p. 331.
    17. The king would finally become beloved in Denmark near the end of his life when his heroic resistance to Nazi occupation during the Second World War won many Danes over.
    18. In 2021, this sum equates to $1,565,000.
    19. Diaries of the Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna
    1. RA/AA/Charlotte Knollys
    2. Battiscombe, Coryne. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 298.
    3. RA/AA/35/28
    4. Battiscombe, Georgina. Queen Alexandra. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1969, p. 298.
    5. RA/AA/35/34
    6. HMY Alexandra was sold to Norway in 1925. It initially became a cruise ship and eventually saw service with the royal family of Norway and then as a military vessel during World War II under the title Prins Olav, renamed for Alix’s grandson—Maud’s son—Crown Prince Olav (later King Olav V). It was sunk in 1940.
    7. RA/AA/35/43
    8. RA/AA/35/29
    9. RA/AA/35/53
    10. York Cottage on the Sandringham estate remained the country house of George and Mary and their children.
    11. RA/Add./A/21/159
    12. She became Queen Elizabeth, young Bertie’s consort, when he became George VI in 1936. She is best known as the late Queen Mother.
    13. RA/AA/35/4
    14. Rose, Kenneth. King George V. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983, p. 235.
    15. When the Bolsheviks came to search Ai-Todor in 1918, they confiscated Minnie’s Danish Bible. Years would pass before she would see it again. Somehow it wound up in a secondhand bookstore. It was recognized, purchased, and sent to her in Denmark where it once more became her most valued possession.
    16. Public mourning for Queen Alexandra was overwhelming and very much predestined the outpouring of sorrow at the death of Princess Diana in 1997.
    17. Thyra’s husband Ernst August had died in 1923. Marie d’Orleans, Waldemar’s French wife, died in 1909. Queen Olga was widowed when Willy was assassinated in 1913 and she herself would die in 1926 at age 74. The Danish king was Alix’s nephew. So was King Haakon of Norway, but he was also simultaneously her son-in-law as Alix’s daughter Maud was his wife. Their son Olav was her grandson.
    18. Sir Dighton Probyn escaped the sorrow of participating in the burial of his beloved queen. He died on 20 June 1924 at age 91.
    19. David would in time become King Edward VIII (and afterward the Duke of Windsor). Young Bertie would in time become King George VI. Olav would become King Olav V of Norway; and Henry and George would become respectively the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Kent.
    20. British Pathé, 28 November 1925,
    21. On 28 October 1928, a new royal burial ground was consecrated behind Queen Victoria’s mausoleum at Frogmore near Windsor. This private cemetery was created to both make space within the crypt beneath the Chapel of Saint George and to offer a private royal burial ground for future family members who would, themselves, never become the monarch or the consort. After this date a good number of those interred previously in the crypt beneath Saint George’s were transferred to the new burial ground at Frogmore. One of these transfers was the remains of Prince Frank of Teck – Queen Mary’s brother and the prince who first won the heart of Alix’s daughter Maud.
    22. Known as Coppins, the house passed after Princess Victoria’s death to her nephew Prince George, Duke of Kent and his wife Marina, who was born a princess of Greece and Denmark.
    23. Huis Doorn Archives, 1925
    24. Hall, Coryne and Sentra Driver. Hvidore. Falkoping: Rosvall Royal Books, 2012, p. 40.
    25. Vorres, Ian. The Last Grand Duchess. London: Hutchinson, 1964, p. 179-80.
    26. Ibid
    27. RA/GV/AA/43/364
    1. Memoirs of Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich/letter from Prince Felix Yusopov, 19 September 1927
    2. Recollections of Prince Waldemar of Denmark
    3. Ibid
    4. Ibid
    5. In 1991, the bodies of Tsar Nicholas and the Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna and three of their daughters were found in graves at Ekaterinburg. Mitochondrial DNA taken from the female bones matched that of samples provided by Prince Philip whose grandmother was the sister of the Empress Alexandra. In 2007, the remains of the young Tsarevitch Alexis and another daughter were found and tested, as well. The DNA results for these remains proved that all the bodies were related and that none of the daughters of the late tsar had survived the assassination at Ekaterinburg. Minnie had been correct all along.
    6. Hall, Coryne and Senta Driver. Hvidore: A Royal Retreat. Falkoping: Rosvall Royal Books, 2012, p. 40.
    7. Ibid
    8. This, of course, would have been impossible as King Christian X continued to post members of the Royal Guard at the villa’s doors and within its grounds and Minnie’s own two Cossacks remained with her to the end.
    9. Hall, Coryne. Little Mother of Russia. Teaneck, New Jersey: Holmes and Meier, 2001, p. 348.
    10. Days routinely passed at Hvidore in a mix of Danish, French, German, Russian and English, with English serving as the dominate language. Minnie spoke Russian to her Cossacks and to her Russian staff, Danish to her family and to her Danish staff, English and French to her family at-large and German when guests came to call who spoke only this language.
    11. Klampenborg is the village where Hvidore stands. The king had returned there after Minnie had refused to receive him when he came to call with the Italian monarchs during their state visit to Denmark.
    12. Heads of state, monarchs, popes, and heads of government (under certain circumstances) all lie-in-state after death. All other dignitaries are said to lie-in-repose. When funeral rites begin in a private setting, as Minnie’s did in the Garden Room at Hvidore, it is said that at this time she lay-in-repose.
    13. The name of the Danish flag comprising a red field and a white cross.
    14. Thyra would survive five more years, dying on 26 February 1933.
    15. RA – Denmark/ Kejserinde Dagmar/ begravelse/October, 1928
    16. Ibid
    17. Ibid
    18. Danish police were attached to every member of the Romanov family while they were in Denmark for the funeral so as to protect them from kidnapping by Soviet agents, a very realistic concern at that time.
    19. RA- Denmark/Kejserinde Dagmar begravelse/October, 1928

Family Trees

The story of Alix and Minnie include the Danish, British, and Russian Royal Families. These family trees were created to help outline the various relationships between the historical characters of the trilogy.